The cytokines RANKL and TNF activate NF-κB signaling in osteoclast precursors (OCPs) to induce osteoclast (OC) formation. Conversely, TNF can limit OC formation through NF-κB p100, which acts as an inhibitor, and TNF receptor–associated receptor 3 (TRAF3); however, a role for TRAF3 in RANKL-mediated OC formation is unknown. We found that TRAF3 limits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by suppressing canonical and noncanonical NF-κB signaling. Conditional OC-specific
Yan Xiu, Hao Xu, Chen Zhao, Jinbo Li, Yoshikazu Morita, Zhenqiang Yao, Lianping Xing, Brendan F. Boyce
ROS are implicated in bone diseases. NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), a constitutively active enzymatic source of ROS, may contribute to the development of such disorders. Therefore, we studied the role of NOX4 in bone homeostasis.
Claudia Goettsch, Andrea Babelova, Olivia Trummer, Reinhold G. Erben, Martina Rauner, Stefan Rammelt, Norbert Weissmann, Valeska Weinberger, Sebastian Benkhoff, Marian Kampschulte, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, Lorenz C. Hofbauer, Ralf P. Brandes, Katrin Schröder
Mice deficient in Schnurri-3 (SHN3; also known as HIVEP3) display increased bone formation, but harnessing this observation for therapeutic benefit requires an improved understanding of how SHN3 functions in osteoblasts. Here we identified SHN3 as a dampener of ERK activity that functions in part downstream of WNT signaling in osteoblasts. A D-domain motif within SHN3 mediated the interaction with and inhibition of ERK activity and osteoblast differentiation, and knockin of a mutation in
Jae-Hyuck Shim, Matthew B. Greenblatt, Weiguo Zou, Zhiwei Huang, Marc N. Wein, Nicholas Brady, Dorothy Hu, Jean Charron, Heather R. Brodkin, Gregory A. Petsko, Dennis Zaller, Bo Zhai, Steven Gygi, Laurie H. Glimcher, Dallas C. Jones
Bone remodeling is characterized by the sequential, local tethering of osteoclasts and osteoblasts and is key to the maintenance of bone integrity. While bone matrix–mobilized growth factors, such as TGF-β, are proposed to regulate remodeling, no in vivo evidence exists that an osteoclast-produced molecule serves as a coupling factor for bone resorption to formation. We found that CTHRC1, a protein secreted by mature bone-resorbing osteoclasts, targets stromal cells to stimulate osteogenesis.
Sunao Takeshita, Toshio Fumoto, Kazuhiko Matsuoka, Kyoung-ae Park, Hiroyuki Aburatani, Shigeaki Kato, Masako Ito, Kyoji Ikeda
Wnt/β-catenin/TCF signaling stimulates bone formation and suppresses adipogenesis. The hallmarks of skeletal involution with age, on the other hand, are decreased bone formation and increased bone marrow adiposity. These changes are associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased growth factor production, which activates members of the FOXO family of transcription factors. FOXOs in turn attenuate Wnt/β-catenin signaling by diverting β-catenin from TCF- to FOXO-mediated transcription. We show herein that mice lacking
Srividhya Iyer, Elena Ambrogini, Shoshana M. Bartell, Li Han, Paula K. Roberson, Rafael de Cabo, Robert L. Jilka, Robert S. Weinstein, Charles A. O’Brien, Stavros C. Manolagas, Maria Almeida
Cathepsin K (CTSK) is secreted by osteoclasts to degrade collagen and other matrix proteins during bone resorption. Global deletion of
Sutada Lotinun, Riku Kiviranta, Takuma Matsubara, Jorge A. Alzate, Lynn Neff, Anja Lüth, Ilpo Koskivirta, Burkhard Kleuser, Jean Vacher, Eero Vuorio, William C. Horne, Roland Baron
Osteoclasts are bone resorbing, multinucleate cells that differentiate from mononuclear macrophage/monocyte-lineage hematopoietic precursor cells. Although previous studies have revealed important molecular signals, how the bone resorptive functions of such cells are controlled in vivo remains less well characterized. Here, we visualized fluorescently labeled mature osteoclasts in intact mouse bone tissues using intravital multiphoton microscopy. Within this mature population, we observed cells with distinct motility behaviors and function, with the relative proportion of static – bone resorptive (R) to moving – nonresorptive (N) varying in accordance with the pathophysiological conditions of the bone. We also found that rapid application of the osteoclast-activation factor RANKL converted many N osteoclasts to R, suggesting a novel point of action in RANKL-mediated control of mature osteoclast function. Furthermore, we showed that Th17 cells, a subset of RANKL-expressing CD4+ T cells, could induce rapid N-to-R conversion of mature osteoclasts via cell-cell contact. These findings provide new insights into the activities of mature osteoclasts in situ and identify actions of RANKL-expressing Th17 cells in inflammatory bone destruction.
Junichi Kikuta, Yoh Wada, Toshiyuki Kowada, Ze Wang, Ge-Hong Sun-Wada, Issei Nishiyama, Shin Mizukami, Nobuhiko Maiya, Hisataka Yasuda, Atsushi Kumanogoh, Kazuya Kikuchi, Ronald N. Germain, Masaru Ishii
The detection of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in osteoblasts and osteoclasts over 20 years ago suggested that direct effects of estrogens on both of these cell types are responsible for their beneficial effects on the skeleton, but the role of ERα in osteoblast lineage cells has remained elusive. In addition, estrogen activation of ERα in osteoclasts can only account for the protective effect of estrogens on the cancellous, but not the cortical, bone compartment that represents 80% of the entire skeleton. Here, we deleted ERα at different stages of differentiation in murine osteoblast lineage cells. We found that ERα in osteoblast progenitors expressing Osterix1 (Osx1) potentiates Wnt/β-catenin signaling, thereby increasing proliferation and differentiation of periosteal cells. Further, this signaling pathway was required for optimal cortical bone accrual at the periosteum in mice. Notably, this function did not require estrogens. The osteoblast progenitor ERα mediated a protective effect of estrogens against endocortical, but not cancellous, bone resorption. ERα in mature osteoblasts or osteocytes did not influence cancellous or cortical bone mass. Hence, the ERα in both osteoblast progenitors and osteoclasts functions to optimize bone mass but at distinct bone compartments and in response to different cues.
Maria Almeida, Srividhya Iyer, Marta Martin-Millan, Shoshana M. Bartell, Li Han, Elena Ambrogini, Melda Onal, Jinhu Xiong, Robert S. Weinstein, Robert L. Jilka, Charles A. O’Brien, Stavros C. Manolagas
Long-term glucocorticoid treatment is associated with numerous adverse outcomes, including weight gain, insulin resistance, and diabetes; however, the pathogenesis of these side effects remains obscure. Glucocorticoids also suppress osteoblast function, including osteocalcin synthesis. Osteocalcin is an osteoblast-specific peptide that is reported to be involved in normal murine fuel metabolism. We now demonstrate that osteoblasts play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of glucocorticoid-induced dysmetabolism. Osteoblast-targeted disruption of glucocorticoid signaling significantly attenuated the suppression of osteocalcin synthesis and prevented the development of insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and abnormal weight gain in corticosterone-treated mice. Nearly identical effects were observed in glucocorticoid-treated animals following heterotopic (hepatic) expression of both carboxylated and uncarboxylated osteocalcin through gene therapy, which additionally led to a reduction in hepatic lipid deposition and improved phosphorylation of the insulin receptor. These data suggest that the effects of exogenous high-dose glucocorticoids on insulin target tissues and systemic energy metabolism are mediated, at least in part, through the skeleton.
Tara C. Brennan-Speranza, Holger Henneicke, Sylvia J. Gasparini, Katharina I. Blankenstein, Uta Heinevetter, Victoria C. Cogger, Dmitri Svistounov, Yaqing Zhang, Gregory J. Cooney, Frank Buttgereit, Colin R. Dunstan, Caren Gundberg, Hong Zhou, Markus J. Seibel
The adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor P2RY12 (purinergic receptor P2Y, G protein coupled, 12) plays a critical role in platelet aggregation, and P2RY12 inhibitors are used clinically to prevent cardiac and cerebral thrombotic events. Extracellular ADP has also been shown to increase osteoclast (OC) activity, but the role of P2RY12 in OC biology is unknown. Here, we examined the role of mouse P2RY12 in OC function. Mice lacking P2ry12 had decreased OC activity and were partially protected from age-associated bone loss. P2ry12–/– OCs exhibited intact differentiation markers, but diminished resorptive function. Extracellular ADP enhanced OC adhesion and resorptive activity of WT, but not P2ry12–/–, OCs. In platelets, ADP stimulation of P2RY12 resulted in GTPase Ras-related protein (RAP1) activation and subsequent αIIbβ3 integrin activation. Likewise, we found that ADP stimulation induced RAP1 activation in WT and integrin β3 gene knockout (Itgb3–/–) OCs, but its effects were substantially blunted in P2ry12–/– OCs. In vivo, P2ry12–/– mice were partially protected from pathologic bone loss associated with serum transfer arthritis, tumor growth in bone, and ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis: all conditions associated with increased extracellular ADP. Finally, mice treated with the clinical inhibitor of P2RY12, clopidogrel, were protected from pathologic osteolysis. These results demonstrate that P2RY12 is the primary ADP receptor in OCs and suggest that P2RY12 inhibition is a potential therapeutic target for pathologic bone loss.
Xinming Su, Desiree H. Floyd, Alun Hughes, Jingyu Xiang, Jochen G. Schneider, Ozge Uluckan, Emanuela Heller, Hongju Deng, Wei Zou, Clarissa S. Craft, Kaiming Wu, Angela C. Hirbe, Dorota Grabowska, Mark C. Eagleton, Sarah Townsley, Lynne Collins, David Piwnica-Worms, Thomas H. Steinberg, Deborah V. Novack, Pamela B. Conley, Michelle A. Hurchla, Michael Rogers, Katherine N. Weilbaecher