Paroxysmal dyskinesias are episodic movement disorders that can be inherited or are sporadic in nature. The pathophysiology underlying these disorders remains largely unknown but may involve disrupted ion homeostasis due to defects in cell-surface channels or nutrient transporters. In this study, we describe a family with paroxysmal exertion-induced dyskinesia (PED) over 3 generations. Their PED was accompanied by epilepsy, mild developmental delay, reduced CSF glucose levels, hemolytic anemia with echinocytosis, and altered erythrocyte ion concentrations. Using a candidate gene approach, we identified a causative deletion of 4 highly conserved amino acids (Q282_S285del) in the pore region of the glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). Functional studies in Xenopus oocytes and human erythrocytes revealed that this mutation decreased glucose transport and caused a cation leak that alters intracellular concentrations of sodium, potassium, and calcium. We screened 4 additional families, in which PED is combined with epilepsy, developmental delay, or migraine, but not with hemolysis or echinocytosis, and identified 2 additional GLUT1 mutations (A275T, G314S) that decreased glucose transport but did not affect cation permeability. Combining these data with brain imaging studies, we propose that the dyskinesias result from an exertion-induced energy deficit that may cause episodic dysfunction of the basal ganglia, and that the hemolysis with echinocytosis may result from alterations in intracellular electrolytes caused by a cation leak through mutant GLUT1.
Yvonne G. Weber, Alexander Storch, Thomas V. Wuttke, Knut Brockmann, Judith Kempfle, Snezana Maljevic, Lucia Margari, Christoph Kamm, Susanne A. Schneider, Stephan M. Huber, Arnulf Pekrun, Robert Roebling, Guiscard Seebohm, Saisudha Koka, Camelia Lang, Eduard Kraft, Dragica Blazevic, Alberto Salvo-Vargas, Michael Fauler, Felix M. Mottaghy, Alexander Münchau, Mark J. Edwards, Anna Presicci, Francesco Margari, Thomas Gasser, Florian Lang, Kailash P. Bhatia, Frank Lehmann-Horn, Holger Lerche