Cancer immune evasion is achieved through multiple layers of immune tolerance mechanisms including immune editing, recruitment of tolerogenic immune cells, and secretion of immune suppressive cytokines. Recent success with immune checkpoint inhibitors in cancer immunotherapy suggests a dysfunctional immune synapse as a pivotal tolerogenic mechanism. Tumor cells express immune synapse proteins to suppress the immune system, which is often modulated by epigenetic mechanisms. When the methylation status of key immune synapse genes was interrogated, we observed disproportionately hyper-methylated co-stimulatory genes and hypo-methylation of immune checkpoint genes, which were negatively associated with functional T-cell recruitment to the tumor microenvironment. Therefore, the methylation status of immune synapse genes reflects tumor immunogenicity and correlates with survival.
Anders Berglund, Matthew Mills, Ryan M. Putney, Imène Hamaidi, James Mulé, Sungjune Kim
microRNA-21 (miR-21) is the most commonly upregulated miRNA in solid tumors. This cancer-associated microRNA (oncomiR) regulates various downstream effectors associated with tumor pathogenesis during all stages of carcinogenesis. In this study, we analyzed the function of miR-21 in noncancer cells of the tumor microenvironment to further evaluate its contribution to tumor progression. We report that the expression of miR-21 in cells of the tumor immune infiltrate, and in particular in macrophages, was responsible for promoting tumor growth. Absence of miR-21 expression in tumor- associated macrophages (TAMs), caused a global rewiring of their transcriptional regulatory network that was skewed toward a proinflammatory angiostatic phenotype. This promoted an antitumoral immune response characterized by a macrophage-mediated improvement of cytotoxic T-cell responses through the induction of cytokines and chemokines, including IL-12 and C-X-C motif chemokine 10. These effects translated to a reduction in tumor neovascularization and an induction of tumor cell death that led to decreased tumor growth. Additionally, using the carrier peptide pH (low) insertion peptide, we were able to target miR-21 in TAMs, which decreased tumor growth even under conditions where miR-21 expression was deficient in cancer cells. Consequently, miR-21 inhibition in TAMs induced an angiostatic and immunostimulatory activation with potential therapeutic implications.
Mahnaz Sahraei, Balkrishna Chaube, Yuting Liu, Jonathan Sun, Alanna Kaplan, Nathan L. Price, Wen Ding, Stanley Oyaghire, Rolando García-Milian, Sameet Mehta, Yana K. Reshetnyak, Raman Bahal, Paolo Fiorina, Peter M. Glazer, David L. Rimm, Carlos Fernández-Hernando, Yajaira Suárez
CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) rely on rapid reorganization of the branched F-actin network to drive the polarized secretion of lytic granules, initiating target cell death during the adaptive immune response. Branched F-actin is generated by the nucleation factor actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex. Patients with mutations in the actin-related protein complex 1B (ARPC1B) subunit of Arp2/3 show combined immunodeficiency, with symptoms of immune dysregulation, including recurrent viral infections and reduced CD8+ T cell count. Here, we show that loss of ARPC1B led to loss of CTL cytotoxicity, with the defect arising at 2 different levels. First, ARPC1B is required for lamellipodia formation, cell migration, and actin reorganization across the immune synapse. Second, we found that ARPC1B is indispensable for the maintenance of TCR, CD8, and GLUT1 membrane proteins at the plasma membrane of CTLs, as recycling via the retromer and WASH complexes was impaired in the absence of ARPC1B. Loss of TCR, CD8, and GLUT1 gave rise to defects in T cell signaling and proliferation upon antigen stimulation of ARPC1B-deficient CTLs, leading to a progressive loss of CD8+ T cells. This triggered an activation-induced immunodeficiency of CTL activity in ARPC1B-deficient patients, which could explain the susceptibility to severe and prolonged viral infections.
Lyra O. Randzavola, Katharina Strege, Marie Juzans, Yukako Asano, Jane C. Stinchcombe, Christian M. Gawden-Bone, Matthew N.J. Seaman, Taco W. Kuijpers, Gillian M. Griffiths
Interventions to prevent HIV-1 infection and alternative tools in HIV cure therapy remain pressing goals. Recently, numerous broadly neutralizing HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies (bNAbs) have been developed which possess the characteristics necessary for potential prophylactic or therapeutic approaches. However, formulation complexities especially for multi-antibody deliveries, long infusion times, and production issues could limit the use of these bNAbs when deployed globally impacting their potential application. Here, we describe an approach utilizing synthetic DNA-encoded monoclonal antibodies (dMAbs) for direct in vivo production of prespecified neutralizing activity. We designed 16 different bNAbs as dMAbs cassettes and studied their activity in small and large animals. Sera from animals administered dMAbs neutralized multiple HIV-1 isolates with similar activity to their parental recombinant MAbs. Delivery of multiple dMAbs to a single animal led to increased neutralization breadth. Two dMAbs, PGDM1400 and PGT121, were advanced into non-human primates for study. High peak circulating levels (between 6-34µg/ml) of these dMAbs were measured and the sera of all animals displayed broad neutralizing activity. The dMAb approach provides an important local delivery platform for the in vivo generation of HIV-1 bNAbs and for other infectious disease antibodies.
Megan C. Wise, Ziyang Xu, Edgar Tello-Ruiz, Charles Beck, Aspen Trautz, Ami Patel, Sarah T.C. Elliott, Neethu Chokkalingam, Sophie Kim, Melissa G. Kerkau, Kar Muthumani, Jingjing Jiang, Paul Fisher, Stephany J. Ramos, Trevor R.F. Smith, Janess Mendoza, Kate E. Broderick, David C. Montefiori, Guido Ferrari, Daniel W. Kulp, Laurent Humeau, David B. Weiner
Background: Chronic HCV-infection is characterized by a severe impairment of HCV-specific CD4 T cell help that is driven by chronic antigen stimulation. We aimed to study the fate of HCV-specific CD4 T cells after viral elimination. Methods:HCV-specific CD4 T cell responses were longitudinally analyzed using MHC class II tetramer-technology, multicolor flow cytometry and RNA sequencing in a cohort of chronically HCV-infected patients undergoing therapy with direct-acting antivirals. In addition, HCV-specific neutralizing antibodies and CXCL13 levels were analyzed. Results: We observed that the frequency of HCV-specific CD4 T cells increased within two weeks after initiation of DAA therapy. Multicolor flow cytometry revealed a downregulation of exhaustion and activation markers and an upregulation of memory-associated markers. While cells with a Th1 phenotype were the predominant subset at baseline, cells with phenotypic and transcriptional characteristics of follicular T helper cells increasingly shaped the circulating HCV-specific CD4 T cell repertoire, suggesting antigen-independent survival of this subset. These changes were accompanied by a decline of HCV-specific neutralizing antibodies and the germinal center activity. Conclusion: We identified a population of HCV-specific CD4 T cells with a follicular T helper cell signature that is maintained after therapy-induced elimination of persistent infection and may constitute an important target population for vaccination efforts to prevent re-infection and immunotherapeutic approaches for persistent viral infections.
Maike Smits, Katharina Zoldan, Naveed Ishaque, Zuguang Gu, Katharina Jechow, Dominik Wieland, Christian Conrad, Roland Eils, Catherine Fauvelle, Thomas F. Baumert, Florian Emmerich, Bertram Bengsch, Christoph Neumann-Haefelin, Maike Hofmann, Robert Thimme, Tobias Boettler
X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, and neoplasia (XMEN) disease is caused by deficiency of the magnesium transporter 1 gene (MAGT1). We studied 23 XMEN patients, 8 of whom were EBV-naïve. We observed lymphadenopathy (LAD), cytopenias, liver disease, cavum septum pellucidum, and increased CD4-CD8-B220-TCRalpha/beta+ T (abDNT) cells, in addition to the previously described features of an inverted CD4:CD8 ratio, CD4+ T lymphocytopenia, increased B cells, dysgammaglobulinemia, and decreased expression of the “Natural-Killer Group 2, member D” (NKG2D) receptor. EBV-associated B cell malignancies occurred frequently in EBV-infected patients. We investigated XMEN patients and autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) patients by deep immunophenotyping (32 immune markers) using Time of Flight Mass Cytometry (CyTOF). Our analysis revealed that the abundance of two populations of naïve B cells (CD20+CD27-CD22+IgM+HLA-DR+CXCR5+CXCR4++CD10+CD38+ and CD20+CD27-CD22+IgM+HLA-DR+CXCR5+CXCR4+CD10-CD38-) could differentially classify XMEN, ALPS, and normal individuals. We also performed glycoproteomics analysis on T lymphocytes and show that XMEN disease is a congenital disorder of glycosylation that affects a restricted subset of glycoproteins. Transfection of MAGT1 mRNA enabled us to rescue proteins with defective glycosylation. Together, these data provide new clinical and pathophysiological foundations with important ramifications for the diagnosis and treatment of XMEN disease.
Juan C. Ravell, Mami Matsuda-Lennikov, Samuel D. Chauvin, Juan Zou, Matthew Biancalana, Sally J. Deeb, Susan Price, Helen C. Su, Giulia Notarangelo, Ping Jiang, Aaron Morawski, Chrysi Kanellopoulou, Kyle W. Binder, Ratnadeep Mukherjee, James T. Anibal, Brian Sellers, Lixin Zheng, Tingyan He, Alex B. George, Stefania Pittaluga, Astin Powers, David E. Kleiner, Devika Kapuria, Marc Ghany, Sally Hunsberger, Jeffrey I. Cohen, Gulbu Uzel, Jenna Bergerson, Lynne Wolfe, Camilo Toro, William Gahl, Les R. Folio, Helen Matthews, Pam Angelus, Ivan K. Chinn, Jordan S. Orange, Claudia M. Trujillo-Vargas, Jose Luis Franco, Julio Orrego-Arango, Sebastian Gutiérrez-Hincapié, Niraj Chandrakant Patel, Kimiyo Raymond, Turkan Patiroglu, Ekrem Unal, Musa Karakukcu, Alexandre G.R. Day, Pankaj Mehta, Evan Masutani, Suk S. De Ravin, Harry L. Malech, Grégoire Altan-Bonnet, V. Koneti Rao, Matthias Mann, Michael J. Lenardo
Background: Adoptive transfer of donor-derived EBV-specific T-cells (EBV-CTLs) can eradicate EBV associated lymphomas post hematopoietic cell (HCT) or solid organ (SOT) transplants but is not available for most patients. Methods: We developed a 3rd-party, allogeneic, off-the-shelf bank of 330 GMP grade EBV-CTL lines from specifically consented healthy HCT donors. We treated 46 recipients of HCT (N=33) or SOT (N=13) with established EBV associated lymphomas, who failed rituximab therapy, with 3rd-party EBV-CTLs. Treatment cycles consisted of 3 weekly infusions of EBV-CTLs and 3 weeks of observation. Results: The EBV-CTLs did not induce significant toxicities or graft injury. One patient developed grade I skin GVHD requiring topical therapy. Complete and sustained partial remissions were achieved in 68% of HCT recipients and 54% of SOT recipients. For patients who achieved CR/PR or stable disease after cycle 1, overall survival was 88.9% and 81.8% respectively at 1 year. Although only 1/11 patients (9.1%) with progression of disease (POD) after cycle 1 who received additional EBV-CTLs from the same donor survived, 3 of 5 with POD subsequently treated with EBV-CTLs from a different donor achieved CR or durable PR (60%) and survive > 1 year. Maximal responses were achieved after a median of 2 cycles. Conclusions: Third party EBV-CTLs of defined HLA restriction provide safe, immediately accessible treatment for EBV PTLD. Secondary treatment with EBV-CTLs restricted by a different HLA allele (switch therapy) can also induce remissions if initial EBV-CTLs are ineffective. These results suggest a promising potential therapy for patients with rituximab refractory EBV-associated lymphoma post transplant. Phase II protocols (NCT01498484 and NCT00002663) were approved by the Institutional Review Board at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Food and Drug Administration and National Marrow Donor Program. This work was supported through NIH grants CA23766, NIH R21CA162002, Aubrey Fund, The Claire Tow Foundation, Major Family Foundation, Max Cure Foundation, Richard “Rick” J. EIsemann Pediatric Research Fund, Banbury Foundation, Edith Robertson Foundation, Larry Smead Foundation. In June 2015 Atara Biotherapeutics licensed the EBV-CTL bank and is developing this as ATA-129.
Susan Prockop, Ekaterina Doubrovina, Stephanie Suser, Glenn Heller, Juliet Barker, Parastoo Dahi, Miguel A. Perales, Esperanza Papadopoulos, Craig Sauter, Hugo Castro-Malaspina, Farid Boulad, Kevin J. Curran, Sergio Giralt, Boglarka Gyurkocza, Katharine C. Hsu, Ann Jakubowski, Alan M. Hanash, Nancy A. Kernan, Rachel Kobos, Guenther Koehne, Heather Landau, Doris Ponce, Barbara Spitzer, James W. Young, Gerald Behr, Mark Dunphy, Sofia Haque, Julie Teruya-Feldstein, Maria Arcila, Christine Moung, Susan Hsu, Aisha Hasan, Richard J. O'Reilly
Efficacy of dendritic cell (DC) cancer vaccines is classically thought to depend on their antigen-presenting cell (APC) activity. Studies show, however, that DC vaccine priming of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) requires the activity of endogenous DC, suggesting that exogenous DC stimulate anti-tumor immunity by transferring antigen (Ag) to endogenous DC. Such Ag transfer functions are most commonly ascribed to monocytes, implying that undifferentiated monocytes would function equally well as a vaccine modality and need not be differentiated to DC to be effective. Here, we used several murine cancer models to test the anti-tumor efficacy of undifferentiated monocytes loaded with protein or peptide Ag. Intravenously injected monocytes displayed anti-tumor activity superior to DC vaccines in several cancer models, including aggressive intracranial glioblastoma. Ag-loaded monocytes induced robust CTL responses via Ag transfer to splenic CD8+ DC in a manner independent of monocyte APC activity. Ag transfer required cell-cell contact and the formation of connexin 43-containing gap junctions between monocytes and DC. These findings demonstrate the existence of an efficient gap junction-mediated Ag transfer pathway between monocytes and CD8+ DC and suggest that administration of tumor Ag-loaded undifferentiated monocytes may serve as a simple and efficacious immunotherapy for the treatment of human cancers.
Min-Nung Huang, Lowell T. Nicholson, Kristen A. Batich, Adam M. Swartz, David Kopin, Sebastian Wellford, Vijay K. Prabhakar, Karolina Woroniecka, Smita K. Nair, Peter E. Fecci, John H. Sampson, Michael D. Gunn
CD8+ T cell responses are necessary for immune control of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). However, the key parameters that dictate antiviral potency remain elusive, conceivably because most studies to date have been restricted to analyses of circulating CD8+ T cells. We conducted a detailed clonotypic, functional, and phenotypic survey of SIV-specific CD8+ T cells across multiple anatomical sites in chronically infected rhesus macaques with high (> 10,000 copies/mL plasma) or low burdens of viral RNA (< 10,000 copies/mL plasma). No significant differences in response magnitude were identified across anatomical compartments. Rhesus macaques with low viral loads (VLs) harbored higher frequencies of polyfunctional CXCR5+ SIV-specific CD8+ T cells in various lymphoid tissues and higher proportions of unique Gag-specific CD8+ T cell clonotypes in the mesenteric lymph nodes relative to rhesus macaques with high VLs. In addition, public Gag-specific CD8+ T cell clonotypes were more commonly shared across distinct anatomical sites than the corresponding private clonotypes, which tended to form tissue-specific repertoires, especially in the peripheral blood and the gastrointestinal tract. Collectively, these data suggest that functionality and tissue localization are important determinants of CD8+ T cell-mediated efficacy against SIV.
Carly E. Starke, Carol L. Vinton, Kristin Ladell, James E. McLaren, Alexandra M. Ortiz, Joseph C. Mudd, Jacob K. Flynn, Stephen H. Lai, Fan Wu, Vanessa M. Hirsch, Samuel Darko, Daniel C. Douek, David A. Price, Jason M. Brenchley
Antagonists of the type 1 cysteinyl leukotriene receptor (CysLT1R) are widely used to treat asthma and allergic rhinitis, with variable response rates. Alveolar macrophages express UDP-specific P2Y6 receptors that can be blocked by off-target effects of CysLT1R antagonists. Sensitizing intranasal doses of an extract from the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae (Df) sharply increased the levels of UDP detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice. Conditional deletion of P2Y6 receptors before sensitization exacerbated eosinophilic lung inflammation and type 2 cytokine production in response to subsequent Df challenge. P2Y6 receptor signaling was necessary for dectin-2–dependent production of protective IL-12p40 and Th1 chemokines by alveolar macrophages, leading to activation of NK cells to generate IFN-γ. Administration of CysLT1R antagonists during sensitization blocked UDP-elicited potentiation of IL-12p40 production by macrophages in vitro, suppressed the Df-induced production of IL-12p40 and IFN-γ in vivo, and suppressed type 2 inflammation only in P2Y6-deficient mice. Thus, P2Y6 receptor signaling drives an innate macrophage/IL-12/NK cell/IFN-γ axis that prevents inappropriate allergic type 2 immune responses on respiratory allergen exposure and counteracts the Th2 priming effect of CysLT1R signaling at sensitization. Targeting P2Y6 signaling might prove to be a potential additional treatment strategy for allergy.
Jun Nagai, Barbara Balestrieri, Laura B. Fanning, Timothy Kyin, Haley Cirka, Junrui Lin, Marco Idzko, Andreas Zech, Edy Y. Kim, Patrick J. Brennan, Joshua A. Boyce