Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a pore-forming toxin secreted by Staphylococcus aureus that has recently been associated with necrotizing pneumonia. In the present study, we report that in vitro, PVL induces polymorphonuclear cell death by necrosis or by apoptosis, depending on the PVL concentration. PVL-induced apoptosis was associated with a rapid disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, suggesting that PVL-induced apoptosis is preferentially mediated by the mitochondrial pathway. Polymorphonuclear cell exposure to PVL leads to mitochondrial localization of the toxin, whereas Bax, 1 of the 2 essential proapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family, was still localized in the cytosol. Addition of PVL to isolated mitochondria induced the release of the apoptogenic proteins cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO. Therefore, we suggest that PVL, which belongs to the pore-forming toxin family, could act at the mitochondrion level by creating pores in the mitochondrial outer membrane. Furthermore, LukS-PV, 1 of the 2 components of PVL, was detected in lung sections of patients with necrotizing pneumonia together with DNA fragmentation, suggesting that PVL induces apoptosis in vivo and thereby is directly involved in the pathophysiology of necrotizing pneumonia.
Anne-Laure Genestier, Marie-Cécile Michallet, Gilles Prévost, Gregory Bellot, Lara Chalabreysse, Simone Peyrol, Françoise Thivolet, Jerome Etienne, Gérard Lina, François M. Vallette, François Vandenesch, Laurent Genestier
PMN apoptosis and necrosis as a function of the rPVL concentration. PMNs were incubated with medium for 6 hours, with 5 nM rPVL for 6 hours, or with 200 nM rPVL for 1 hour. PMNs were then cytospun on glass coverslips and observed after either May-Grünwald/Giemsa staining (