In extrapulmonary tuberculosis, the most common site of infection is within the lymphatic system, and there is growing recognition that lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are involved in immune function. Here, we identified LECs, which line the lymphatic vessels, as a niche for
Thomas R. Lerner, Cristiane de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz, Urska Repnik, Matthew R.G. Russell, Sophie Borel, Collin R. Diedrich, Manfred Rohde, Helen Wainwright, Lucy M. Collinson, Robert J. Wilkinson, Gareth Griffiths, Maximiliano G. Gutierrez
It has been reported that endogenous retroviruses can contaminate human cell lines that have been passaged as xenotransplants in immunocompromised mice. We previously developed and described 2 human pancreatic β cell lines (EndoC-βH1 and EndoC-βH2) that were generated in this way. Here, we have shown that B10 xenotropic virus 1 (
Jeannette S. Kirkegaard, Philippe Ravassard, Signe Ingvarsen, Marc Diedisheim, Emilie Bricout-Neveu, Mads Grønborg, Thomas Frogne, Raphael Scharfmann, Ole D. Madsen, Claude Rescan, Olivier Albagli
Cilia are critical mediators of paracrine signaling; however, it is unknown whether proteins that contribute to ciliopathies converge on multiple paracrine pathways through a common mechanism. Here, we show that loss of cilopathy-associated proteins Bardet-Biedl syndrome 4 (BBS4) or oral-facial-digital syndrome 1 (OFD1) results in the accumulation of signaling mediators normally targeted for proteasomal degradation. In WT cells, several BBS proteins and OFD1 interacted with proteasomal subunits, and loss of either BBS4 or OFD1 led to depletion of multiple subunits from the centrosomal proteasome. Furthermore, overexpression of proteasomal regulatory components or treatment with proteasomal activators sulforaphane (SFN) and mevalonolactone (MVA) ameliorated signaling defects in cells lacking BBS1, BBS4, and OFD1, in morphant zebrafish embryos, and in induced neurons from
Yangfan P. Liu, I-Chun Tsai, Manuela Morleo, Edwin C. Oh, Carmen C. Leitch, Filomena Massa, Byung-Hoon Lee, David S. Parker, Daniel Finley, Norann A. Zaghloul, Brunella Franco, Nicholas Katsanis
Hereditary deafness affects approximately 1 in 2,000 children. Mutations in the gene encoding the cochlear gap junction protein connexin 26 (CX26) cause prelingual, nonsyndromic deafness and are responsible for as many as 50% of hereditary deafness cases in certain populations. Connexin-associated deafness is thought to be the result of defective development of auditory sensory epithelium due to connexion dysfunction. Surprisingly, CX26 deficiency is not compensated for by the closely related connexin CX30, which is abundantly expressed in the same cochlear cells. Here, using two mouse models of CX26-associated deafness, we demonstrate that disruption of the CX26-dependent gap junction plaque (GJP) is the earliest observable change during embryonic development of mice with connexin-associated deafness. Loss of CX26 resulted in a drastic reduction in the GJP area and protein level and was associated with excessive endocytosis with increased expression of caveolin 1 and caveolin 2. Furthermore, expression of deafness-associated
Kazusaku Kamiya, Sabrina W. Yum, Nagomi Kurebayashi, Miho Muraki, Kana Ogawa, Keiko Karasawa, Asuka Miwa, Xueshui Guo, Satoru Gotoh, Yoshinobu Sugitani, Hitomi Yamanaka, Shioko Ito-Kawashima, Takashi Iizuka, Takashi Sakurai, Tetsuo Noda, Osamu Minowa, Katsuhisa Ikeda
Cleft lip, which results from impaired facial process growth and fusion, is one of the most common craniofacial birth defects. Many genes are known to be involved in the etiology of this disorder; however, our understanding of cleft lip pathogenesis remains incomplete. In the present study, we uncovered a role for sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling during lip fusion. Mice carrying compound mutations in hedgehog acyltransferase (
Hiroshi Kurosaka, Angelo Iulianella, Trevor Williams, Paul A. Trainor
Mutations in the gene centrosomal protein 290 kDa (
Theodore G. Drivas, Erika L.F. Holzbaur, Jean Bennett
Dysfunctional telomeres limit cellular proliferative capacity by activating the p53-p21– and p16INK4a-Rb–dependent DNA damage responses (DDRs). The p16INK4a tumor suppressor accumulates in aging tissues, is a biomarker for cellular senescence, and limits stem cell function in vivo. While the activation of a p53-dependent DDR by dysfunctional telomeres has been well documented in human cells and mouse models, the role for p16INK4a in response to telomere dysfunction remains unclear. Here, we generated protection of telomeres 1b
Yang Wang, Norman Sharpless, Sandy Chang
Mechanosensory hair cells are the receptor cells of hearing and balance. Hair cells are sensitive to death from exposure to therapeutic drugs with ototoxic side effects, including aminoglycoside antibiotics and cisplatin. We recently showed that the induction of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) inhibits ototoxic drug–induced hair cell death. Here, we examined the mechanisms underlying the protective effect of HSP70. In response to heat shock, HSP70 was induced in glia-like supporting cells but not in hair cells. Adenovirus-mediated infection of supporting cells with
Lindsey A. May, Inga I. Kramarenko, Carlene S. Brandon, Christina Voelkel-Johnson, Soumen Roy, Kristy Truong, Shimon P. Francis, Elyssa L. Monzack, Fu-Shing Lee, Lisa L. Cunningham
Breast cancers commonly become resistant to EGFR–tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs); however, the mechanisms of this resistance remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that resistance may originate, at least in part, from molecular alterations that activate signaling downstream of EGFR. Using a screen to measure reversion of malignant cells into phenotypically nonmalignant cells in 3D gels, we identified FAM83A as a candidate cancer-associated gene capable of conferring resistance to EGFR-TKIs. FAM83A overexpression in cancer cells increased proliferation and invasion and imparted EGFR-TKI resistance both in cultured cells and in animals. Tumor cells that survived EGFR-TKI treatment in vivo had upregulated FAM83A levels. Additionally, FAM83A overexpression dramatically increased the number and size of transformed foci in cultured cells and anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. Conversely, FAM83A depletion in cancer cells caused reversion of the malignant phenotype, delayed tumor growth in mice, and rendered cells more sensitive to EGFR-TKI. Analyses of published clinical data revealed a correlation between high FAM83A expression and breast cancer patients’ poor prognosis. We found that FAM83A interacted with and caused phosphorylation of c-RAF and PI3K p85, upstream of MAPK and downstream of EGFR. These data provide an additional mechanism by which tumor cells can become EGFR-TKI resistant.
Sun-Young Lee, Roland Meier, Saori Furuta, Marc E. Lenburg, Paraic A. Kenny, Ren Xu, Mina J. Bissell
Aberrant regulation of eNOS and associated NO release are directly linked with various vascular diseases. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), the main coat protein of caveolae, is highly expressed in endothelial cells. Its scaffolding domain serves as an endogenous negative regulator of eNOS function. Structure-function analysis of Cav-1 has shown that phenylalanine 92 (F92) is critical for the inhibitory actions of Cav-1 toward eNOS. Herein, we show that F92A–Cav-1 and a mutant cell–permeable scaffolding domain peptide called Cavnoxin can increase basal NO release in eNOS-expressing cells. Cavnoxin reduced vascular tone ex vivo and lowered blood pressure in normal mice. In contrast, similar experiments performed with eNOS- or Cav-1–deficient mice showed that the vasodilatory effect of Cavnoxin is abolished in the absence of these gene products, which indicates a high level of eNOS/Cav-1 specificity. Mechanistically, biochemical assays indicated that noninhibitory F92A–Cav-1 and Cavnoxin specifically disrupted the inhibitory actions of endogenous Cav-1 toward eNOS and thereby enhanced basal NO release. Collectively, these data raise the possibility of studying the inhibitory influence of Cav-1 on eNOS without interfering with the other actions of endogenous Cav-1. They also suggest a therapeutic application for regulating the eNOS/Cav-1 interaction in diseases characterized by decreased NO release.
Pascal Bernatchez, Arpeeta Sharma, Philip M. Bauer, Ethan Marin, William C. Sessa
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