Using cre/loxP gene targeting, transgenic mice with muscle-specific inactivation of the GLUT4 gene (muscle GLUT4 KO) were generated and shown to develop a diabetes phenotype. To determine the mechanism, we examined insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and metabolism during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in control and muscle GLUT4 KO mice before and after development of diabetes. Insulin-stimulated whole body glucose uptake was decreased by 55% in muscle GLUT4 KO mice, an effect that could be attributed to a 92% decrease in insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake. Surprisingly, insulin’s ability to stimulate adipose tissue glucose uptake and suppress hepatic glucose production was significantly impaired in muscle GLUT4 KO mice. To address whether these latter changes were caused by glucose toxicity, we treated muscle GLUT4 KO mice with phloridzin to prevent hyperglycemia and found that insulin-stimulated whole body and skeletal muscle glucose uptake were decreased substantially, whereas insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipose tissue and suppression of hepatic glucose production were normal after phloridzin treatment. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that a primary defect in muscle glucose transport can lead to secondary defects in insulin action in adipose tissue and liver due to glucose toxicity. These secondary defects contribute to insulin resistance and to the development of diabetes.
Jason K. Kim, Ariel Zisman, Jonathan J. Fillmore, Odile D. Peroni, Ko Kotani, Pascale Perret, Haihong Zong, Jianying Dong, C. Ronald Kahn, Barbara B. Kahn, Gerald I. Shulman
Guidelines: The Editorial Board will only consider letters that we deem relevant and of interest to our readers. We will not post data that have not been subjected to peer review, nor will we post letters that are essentially a reiteration of another letter. All accepted letters will be posted on our website within one week of acceptance. We reserve the right to edit any letter for length, content, and clarity. Authors of all accepted letters will be asked to preview any changes. Authors will be notified by e-mail if their letters were not accepted. As this is a final decision, no appeals will be considered.
Specific requirements: All letters must be 400 words or fewer. You may enter the letter as plain text or HTML. The author's name and e-mail address are required, and will be posted with the letter. All possible conflicts of interest must be noted, even if they are not posted. If you wish to include a figure (keep in mind that non-peer-reviewed data will not be posted), please contact the editors directly at firstname.lastname@example.org.