HIF1α is a common component of pathways involved in the control of cellular metabolism and has a role in regulating immune cell effector functions. Additionally, HIF1α is critical for the maturation of dendritic cells and for the activation of T cells. HIF1α is induced in LPS-activated macrophages, where it is critically involved in glycolysis and the induction of proinflammatory genes, notably
Sarah E. Corcoran, Luke A.J. O’Neill
Metabolic reprogramming in macrophage polarization.
LPS and IFN-γ induce M1 macrophages. Metabolism in M1 macrophages is characterized by increased glycolysis and PPP activity, and a broken TCA cycle that leads to metabolite accumulation. M2 macrophages display a more oxidative metabolic profile, with a high reliance on the TCA cycle, utilizing OXPHOS and exhibiting high levels of FAO. Inhibition of glycolysis by 2-DG leads to an oxidative M2 phenotype (