Muscle satellite cells promote regeneration and could potentially improve gene delivery for treating muscular dystrophies. Human satellite cells are scarce; therefore, clinical investigation has been limited. We obtained muscle fiber fragments from skeletal muscle biopsy specimens from adult donors aged 20 to 80 years. Fiber fragments were manually dissected, cultured, and evaluated for expression of myogenesis regulator PAX7. PAX7+ satellite cells were activated and proliferated efficiently in culture. Independent of donor age, as few as 2 to 4 PAX7+ satellite cells gave rise to several thousand myoblasts. Transplantation of human muscle fiber fragments into irradiated muscle of immunodeficient mice resulted in robust engraftment, muscle regeneration, and proper homing of human PAX7+ satellite cells to the stem cell niche. Further, we determined that subjecting the human muscle fiber fragments to hypothermic treatment successfully enriches the cultures for PAX7+ cells and improves the efficacy of the transplantation and muscle regeneration. Finally, we successfully altered gene expression in cultured human PAX7+ satellite cells with Sleeping Beauty transposon–mediated nonviral gene transfer, highlighting the potential of this system for use in gene therapy. Together, these results demonstrate the ability to culture and manipulate a rare population of human tissue-specific stem cells and suggest that these PAX7+ satellite cells have potential to restore gene function in muscular dystrophies.
Andreas Marg, Helena Escobar, Sina Gloy, Markus Kufeld, Joseph Zacher, Andreas Spuler, Carmen Birchmeier, Zsuzsanna Izsvák, Simone Spuler
Nemaline myopathy (NM) is a congenital myopathy that can result in lethal muscle dysfunction and is thought to be a disease of the sarcomere thin filament. Recently, several proteins of unknown function have been implicated in NM, but the mechanistic basis of their contribution to disease remains unresolved. Here, we demonstrated that loss of a muscle-specific protein, kelch-like family member 40 (KLHL40), results in a nemaline-like myopathy in mice that closely phenocopies muscle abnormalities observed in
Ankit Garg, Jason O’Rourke, Chengzu Long, Jonathan Doering, Gianina Ravenscroft, Svetlana Bezprozvannaya, Benjamin R. Nelson, Nadine Beetz, Lin Li, She Chen, Nigel G. Laing, Robert W. Grange, Rhonda Bassel-Duby, Eric N. Olson
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin, which results in dysfunctional signaling pathways within muscle. Previously, we identified microRNA-486 (miR-486) as a muscle-enriched microRNA that is markedly reduced in the muscles of dystrophin-deficient mice (
Matthew S. Alexander, Juan Carlos Casar, Norio Motohashi, Natássia M. Vieira, Iris Eisenberg, Jamie L. Marshall, Molly J. Gasperini, Angela Lek, Jennifer A. Myers, Elicia A. Estrella, Peter B. Kang, Frederic Shapiro, Fedik Rahimov, Genri Kawahara, Jeffrey J. Widrick, Louis M. Kunkel
Centronuclear myopathies (CNM) are congenital disorders associated with muscle weakness and abnormally located nuclei in skeletal muscle. An autosomal dominant form of CNM results from mutations in the gene encoding dynamin 2 (DNM2), and loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding myotubularin (MTM1) result in X-linked CNM (XLCNM, also called myotubular myopathy), which promotes severe neonatal hypotonia and early death. Currently, no effective treatments exist for XLCNM. Here, we found increased DNM2 levels in XLCNM patients and a mouse model of XLCNM (
Belinda S. Cowling, Thierry Chevremont, Ivana Prokic, Christine Kretz, Arnaud Ferry, Catherine Coirault, Olga Koutsopoulos, Vincent Laugel, Norma B. Romero, Jocelyn Laporte
The ubiquitously expressed multifunctional cytolinker protein plectin is essential for muscle fiber integrity and myofiber cytoarchitecture. Patients suffering from plectinopathy-associated epidermolysis bullosa simplex with muscular dystrophy (EBS-MD) and mice lacking plectin in skeletal muscle display pathological desmin-positive protein aggregation and misalignment of Z-disks, which are hallmarks of myofibrillar myopathies (MFMs). Here, we developed immortalized murine myoblast cell lines to examine the pathogenesis of plectinopathies at the molecular and single cell level. Plectin-deficient myotubes, derived from myoblasts, were fully functional and mirrored the pathological features of EBS-MD myofibers, including the presence of desmin-positive protein aggregates and a concurrent disarrangement of the myofibrillar apparatus. Using this cell model, we demonstrated that plectin deficiency leads to increased intermediate filament network and sarcomere dynamics, marked upregulation of HSPs, and reduced myotube resilience following mechanical stretch. Currently, no specific therapy or treatment is available to improve plectin-related or other forms of MFMs; therefore, we assessed the therapeutic potential of chemical chaperones to relieve plectinopathies. Treatment with 4-phenylbutyrate resulted in remarkable amelioration of the pathological phenotypes in plectin-deficient myotubes as well as in plectin-deficient mice. Together, these data demonstrate the biological relevance of the MFM cell model and suggest that this model has potential use for the development of therapeutic approaches for EBS-MD.
Lilli Winter, Ilona Staszewska, Eva Mihailovska, Irmgard Fischer, Wolfgang H. Goldmann, Rolf Schröder, Gerhard Wiche
α-Actinin-3 deficiency occurs in approximately 16% of the global population due to homozygosity for a common nonsense polymorphism in the
Jane T. Seto, Kate G.R. Quinlan, Monkol Lek, Xi Fiona Zheng, Fleur Garton, Daniel G. MacArthur, Marshall W. Hogarth, Peter J. Houweling, Paul Gregorevic, Nigel Turner, Gregory J. Cooney, Nan Yang, Kathryn N. North
Tendon formation and repair rely on specific combinations of transcription factors, growth factors, and mechanical parameters that regulate the production and spatial organization of type I collagen. Here, we investigated the function of the zinc finger transcription factor EGR1 in tendon formation, healing, and repair using rodent animal models and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Adult tendons of
Marie-Justine Guerquin, Benjamin Charvet, Geoffroy Nourissat, Emmanuelle Havis, Olivier Ronsin, Marie-Ange Bonnin, Mathilde Ruggiu, Isabel Olivera-Martinez, Nicolas Robert, Yinhui Lu, Karl E. Kadler, Tristan Baumberger, Levon Doursounian, Francis Berenbaum, Delphine Duprez
Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is divided into steroid-sensitive (SSNS) and -resistant (SRNS) variants. SRNS causes end-stage kidney disease, which cannot be cured. While the disease mechanisms of NS are not well understood, genetic mapping studies suggest a multitude of unknown single-gene causes. We combined homozygosity mapping with whole-exome resequencing and identified an
Heon Yung Gee, Pawaree Saisawat, Shazia Ashraf, Toby W. Hurd, Virginia Vega-Warner, Humphrey Fang, Bodo B. Beck, Olivier Gribouval, Weibin Zhou, Katrina A. Diaz, Sivakumar Natarajan, Roger C. Wiggins, Svjetlana Lovric, Gil Chernin, Dominik S. Schoeb, Bugsu Ovunc, Yaacov Frishberg, Neveen A. Soliman, Hanan M. Fathy, Heike Goebel, Julia Hoefele, Lutz T. Weber, Jeffrey W. Innis, Christian Faul, Zhe Han, Joseph Washburn, Corinne Antignac, Shawn Levy, Edgar A. Otto, Friedhelm Hildebrandt
The mechanisms involved in the coordinate regulation of the metabolic and structural programs controlling muscle fitness and endurance are unknown. Recently, the nuclear receptor PPARβ/δ was shown to activate muscle endurance programs in transgenic mice. In contrast, muscle-specific transgenic overexpression of the related nuclear receptor, PPARα, results in reduced capacity for endurance exercise. We took advantage of the divergent actions of PPARβ/δ and PPARα to explore the downstream regulatory circuitry that orchestrates the programs linking muscle fiber type with energy metabolism. Our results indicate that, in addition to the well-established role in transcriptional control of muscle metabolic genes, PPARβ/δ and PPARα participate in programs that exert opposing actions upon the type I fiber program through a distinct muscle microRNA (miRNA) network, dependent on the actions of another nuclear receptor, estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ). Gain-of-function and loss-of-function strategies in mice, together with assessment of muscle biopsies from humans, demonstrated that type I muscle fiber proportion is increased via the stimulatory actions of ERRγ on the expression of miR-499 and miR-208b. This nuclear receptor/miRNA regulatory circuit shows promise for the identification of therapeutic targets aimed at maintaining muscle fitness in a variety of chronic disease states, such as obesity, skeletal myopathies, and heart failure.
Zhenji Gan, John Rumsey, Bethany C. Hazen, Ling Lai, Teresa C. Leone, Rick B. Vega, Hui Xie, Kevin E. Conley, Johan Auwerx, Steven R. Smith, Eric N. Olson, Anastasia Kralli, Daniel P. Kelly
Muscular dystrophies are a class of disorders that cause progressive muscle wasting. A major hurdle for discovering treatments for the muscular dystrophies is a lack of reliable assays to monitor disease progression in animal models. We have developed a novel mouse model to assess disease activity noninvasively in mice with muscular dystrophies. These mice express an inducible luciferase reporter gene in muscle stem cells. In dystrophic mice, muscle stem cells activate and proliferate in response to muscle degeneration, resulting in an increase in the level of luciferase expression, which can be monitored by noninvasive, bioluminescence imaging. We applied this noninvasive imaging to assess disease activity in a mouse model of the human disease limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2B (LGMD2B), caused by a mutation in the dysferlin gene. We monitored the natural history and disease progression in these dysferlin-deficient mice up to 18 months of age and were able to detect disease activity prior to the appearance of any overt disease manifestation by histopathological analyses. Disease activity was reflected by changes in luciferase activity over time, and disease burden was reflected by cumulative luciferase activity, which paralleled disease progression as determined by histopathological analysis. The ability to monitor disease activity noninvasively in mouse models of muscular dystrophy will be invaluable for the assessment of disease progression and the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions.
Katie K. Maguire, Leland Lim, Sedona Speedy, Thomas A. Rando