Activation of sphingosine-1- phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1; green) is shown in this liver section from SIP1 GFP reporter mice with immunofluorescent labeling of albumin (red) and DAPI staining (blue). On page 2076, Kono et al. report the development of a novel genetic model to uncover S1P1 activation in specific cell types in vivo. Their work not only provides important new insights into S1P1 signaling, but also offers a technique that could be broadly applied to other GPCRs to reveal signaling activity.
Pregnancy presents an immunological conundrum because two genetically different individuals coexist. The maternal lymphocytes at the uterine maternal-fetal interface that can recognize mismatched placental cells are T cells and abundant distinctive uterine NK (uNK) cells. Multiple mechanisms exist that avoid damaging T cell responses to the fetus, whereas activation of uNK cells is probably physiological. Indeed, genetic epidemiological data suggest that the variability of NK cell receptors and their MHC ligands define pregnancy success; however, exactly how uNK cells function in normal and pathological pregnancy is still unclear, and any therapies aimed at suppressing NK cells must be viewed with caution. Allorecognition of fetal placental cells by uNK cells is emerging as the key maternal-fetal immune mechanism that regulates placentation.
Ashley Moffett, Francesco Colucci
Food allergy is a common condition for which there are currently no approved treatments except avoidance of the allergenic food and treatment of accidental reactions. There are several potential treatments that are under active investigation in animal and human studies, but it is not yet clear what the best approach may be. Here, we review approaches that are currently in clinical trials, including oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapy, immunotherapy combined with anti-IgE, and Chinese herbal medicine as well as approaches that are in preclinical or early clinical investigation, including modified protein immunotherapy, adjuvants, DNA vaccines, and helminth administration. We discuss the importance of fully exploring the risks and benefits of any treatment before it is taken to general clinical practice and the need for clarity about the goals of treatment.
Corinne A. Keet, Robert A. Wood
The inactivation of NO by advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), which accumulate on tissue proteins as a function of age and hyperglycemia, focused attention on the role of these ubiquitous posttranslational modifications in acquired impairments of vascular reactivity and other signaling processes. This observation occurred during a watershed period of basic and translational research in glycation that encompassed new pathologic phenomena and novel intervention strategies. How has the AGE paradigm for the tissue complications of aging and diabetes fared since the identification of the link between these glycation products and NO inactivation, and what lessons may be offered for future investigations?
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is responsible for lower respiratory tract infections and annually results in 200,000 deaths worldwide. Despite the burden of RSV-associated disease, treatments and preventative measures are limited. In this issue of
Sarah P. Katen, Terence S. Dermody
Three years ago, two research groups independently identified a previously undescribed T cell cosignaling molecule; one referred to it as V-domain Ig suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA), and the other used the term programmed death-1 homolog (PD-1H). Recombinant and ectopically expressed PD-1H functions as a coinhibitory ligand for T cell responses. However, the function of endogenous PD-1H is not clear. In this issue of the
The increase in immunosuppressed patient populations has correlated with a rise in clinical fungal infections, including cryptococcosis. Patient outcome following
John R. Perfect
Left ventricular hypertrophy is an initial compensatory mechanism in response to cardiac stress that can degenerate into heart failure and sudden cardiac death. Recent studies have shown that microRNAs (miRs) regulate several aspects of cardiovascular diseases. In this issue of the
Ciro Indolfi, Antonio Curcio
Deregulation of the Wnt/APC/β-catenin signaling pathway is an important consequence of tumor suppressor
Marion Lapierre, Sandrine Bonnet, Caroline Bascoul-Mollevi, Imade Ait-Arsa, Stéphan Jalaguier, Maguy Del Rio, Michela Plateroti, Paul Roepman, Marc Ychou, Julie Pannequin, Frédéric Hollande, Malcolm Parker, Vincent Cavailles
A precise balance between protein degradation and synthesis is essential to preserve skeletal muscle mass. Here, we found that TP53INP2, a homolog of the
David Sala, Saška Ivanova, Natàlia Plana, Vicent Ribas, Jordi Duran, Daniel Bach, Saadet Turkseven, Martine Laville, Hubert Vidal, Monika Karczewska-Kupczewska, Irina Kowalska, Marek Straczkowski, Xavier Testar, Manuel Palacín, Marco Sandri, Antonio L. Serrano, Antonio Zorzano
The most abundantly produced virion protein in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the immunodominant phosphoprotein 65 (pp65), which is frequently included in CMV vaccines. Although it is nonessential for in vitro CMV growth, pp65 displays immunomodulatory functions that support a potential role in primary and/or persistent infection. To determine the contribution of pp65 to CMV infection and immunity, we generated a rhesus CMV lacking both pp65 orthologs (RhCMVΔpp65ab). While deletion of pp65ab slightly reduced growth in vitro and increased defective particle formation, the protein composition of secreted virions was largely unchanged. Interestingly, pp65 was not required for primary and persistent infection in animals. Immune responses induced by RhCMVΔpp65ab did not prevent reinfection with rhesus CMV; however, reinfection with RhCMVΔUS2-11, which lacks viral-encoded MHC-I antigen presentation inhibitors, was prevented. Unexpectedly, induction of pp65b-specific T cells alone did not protect against RhCMVΔUS2-11 challenge, suggesting that T cells targeting multiple CMV antigens are required for protection. However, pp65-specific immunity was crucial for controlling viral dissemination during primary infection, as indicated by the marked increase of RhCMVΔpp65ab genome copies in CMV-naive, but not CMV-immune, animals. Our data provide rationale for inclusion of pp65 into CMV vaccines but also demonstrate that pp65-induced T cell responses alone do not recapitulate the protective effect of natural infection.
Daniel Malouli, Scott G. Hansen, Ernesto S. Nakayasu, Emily E. Marshall, Colette M. Hughes, Abigail B. Ventura, Roxanne M. Gilbride, Matthew S. Lewis, Guangwu Xu, Craig Kreklywich, Nathan Whizin, Miranda Fischer, Alfred W. Legasse, Kasinath Viswanathan, Don Siess, David G. Camp II, Michael K. Axthelm, Christoph Kahl, Victor R. DeFilippis, Richard D. Smith, Daniel N. Streblow, Louis J. Picker, Klaus Früh
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis is associated with dysregulated CD4+ Th cell responses, with intestinal homeostasis depending on the balance between IL-17–producing Th17 and Foxp3+ Tregs. Differentiation of naive T cells into Th17 and Treg subsets is associated with specific gene expression profiles; however, the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to controlling Th17 and Treg differentiation remains unclear. Using a murine T cell transfer model of colitis, we found that T cell–intrinsic expression of the histone lysine methyltransferase G9A was required for development of pathogenic T cells and intestinal inflammation. G9A-mediated dimethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2) restricted Th17 and Treg differentiation in vitro and in vivo. H3K9me2 was found at high levels in naive Th cells and was lost following Th cell activation. Loss of G9A in naive T cells was associated with increased chromatin accessibility and heightened sensitivity to TGF-β1. Pharmacological inhibition of G9A methyltransferase activity in WT T cells promoted Th17 and Treg differentiation. Our data indicate that G9A-dependent H3K9me2 is a homeostatic epigenetic checkpoint that regulates Th17 and Treg responses by limiting chromatin accessibility and TGF-β1 responsiveness, suggesting G9A as a therapeutic target for treating intestinal inflammation.
Frann Antignano, Kyle Burrows, Michael R. Hughes, Jonathan M. Han, Ken J. Kron, Nadia M. Penrod, Menno J. Oudhoff, Steven Kai Hao Wang, Paul H. Min, Matthew J. Gold, Alistair L. Chenery, Mitchell J.S. Braam, Thomas C. Fung, Fabio M.V. Rossi, Kelly M. McNagny, Cheryl H. Arrowsmith, Mathieu Lupien, Megan K. Levings, Colby Zaph
Administration of glucocorticoids induces ocular hypertension in some patients. If untreated, these patients can develop a secondary glaucoma that resembles primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). The underlying pathology of glucocorticoid-induced glaucoma is not fully understood, due in part to lack of an appropriate animal model. Here, we developed a murine model of glucocorticoid-induced glaucoma that exhibits glaucoma features that are observed in patients. Treatment of WT mice with topical ocular 0.1% dexamethasone led to elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP), functional and structural loss of retinal ganglion cells, and axonal degeneration, resembling glucocorticoid-induced glaucoma in human patients. Furthermore, dexamethasone-induced ocular hypertension was associated with chronic ER stress of the trabecular meshwork (TM). Similar to patients, withdrawal of dexamethasone treatment reduced elevated IOP and ER stress in this animal model. Dexamethasone induced the transcriptional factor CHOP, a marker for chronic ER stress, in the anterior segment tissues, and
Gulab S. Zode, Arti B. Sharma, Xiaolei Lin, Charles C. Searby, Kevin Bugge, Gun Hee Kim, Abbot F. Clark, Val C. Sheffield
T cell activation is regulated by the interactions of surface receptors with stimulatory and inhibitory ligands. Programmed death-1 homolog (PD-1H, also called VISTA) is a member of the CD28 family of proteins and has been shown to act as a coinhibitory ligand on APCs that suppress T cell responses. Here, we determined that PD-1H functions as a coinhibitory receptor for CD4+ T cells. CD4+ T cells in mice lacking PD-1H exhibited a dramatically increased response to antigen stimulation. Furthermore, delivery of a PD-1H–specific agonist mAb directly inhibited CD4+ T cell activation both in vitro and in vivo, validating a coinhibitory function of PD-1H. In a murine model of acute hepatitis, administration of a PD-1H agonist mAb suppressed CD4+ T cell–mediated acute inflammation. PD-1H–deficient animals were highly resistant to tumor induction in a murine brain glioma model, and depletion of CD4+ T cells, but not CD8+ T cells, promoted tumor formation. Together, our findings suggest that PD-1H has potential as a target of immune modulation in the treatment of human inflammation and malignancies.
Dallas B. Flies, Xue Han, Tomoe Higuchi, Linghua Zheng, Jingwei Sun, Jessica Jane Ye, Lieping Chen
Transcriptional coregulators are important components of nuclear receptor (NR) signaling machinery and provide additional mechanisms for modulation of NR activity. Expression of a mutated nuclear corepressor 1 (NCoR1) that lacks 2 NR interacting domains (NCoRΔID) in the liver leads to elevated expression of genes regulated by thyroid hormone receptor (TR) and liver X receptor (LXR), both of which control hepatic cholesterol metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that expression of NCoRΔID in mouse liver improves dietary cholesterol tolerance in an LXRα-independent manner. NCoRΔID-associated cholesterol tolerance was primarily due to diminished intestinal cholesterol absorption as the result of changes in the composition and hydrophobicity of the bile salt pool. Alterations of the bile salt pool were mediated by increased expression of genes encoding the bile acid metabolism enzymes CYP27A1 and CYP3A11 as well as canalicular bile salt pump ABCB11. We have determined that these genes are regulated by thyroid hormone and that TRβ1 is recruited to their regulatory regions. Together, these data indicate that interactions between NCoR1 and TR control a specific pathway involved in regulation of cholesterol metabolism and clearance.
Inna Astapova, Preeti Ramadoss, Ricardo H. Costa-e-Sousa, Felix Ye, Kaila A. Holtz, Yingxia Li, Michele W. Niepel, David E. Cohen, Anthony N. Hollenberg
Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS), a severe form of psychomotor retardation with abnormal thyroid hormone (TH) parameters, is linked to mutations in the TH-specific monocarboxylate transporter MCT8. In mice, deletion of
Steffen Mayerl, Julia Müller, Reinhard Bauer, Sarah Richert, Celia M. Kassmann, Veerle M. Darras, Katrin Buder, Anita Boelen, Theo J. Visser, Heike Heuer
Wilber Sabiiti, Emma Robertson, Mathew A. Beale, Simon A. Johnston, Annemarie E. Brouwer, Angela Loyse, Joseph N. Jarvis, Andrew S. Gilbert, Matthew C. Fisher, Thomas S. Harrison, Robin C. May, Tihana Bicanic
A single G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) can activate multiple signaling cascades based on the binding of different ligands. The biological relevance of this feature in immune regulation has not been evaluated. The chemokine-binding GPCR CXCR3 is preferentially expressed on CD4+ T cells, and canonically binds 3 structurally related chemokines: CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11. Here we have shown that CXCL10/CXCR3 interactions drive effector Th1 polarization via STAT1, STAT4, and STAT5 phosphorylation, while CXCL11/CXCR3 binding induces an immunotolerizing state that is characterized by IL-10hi (Tr1) and IL-4hi (Th2) cells, mediated via p70 kinase/mTOR in STAT3- and STAT6-dependent pathways. CXCL11 binds CXCR3 with a higher affinity than CXCL10, suggesting that CXCL11 has the potential to restrain inflammatory autoimmunity. We generated a CXCL11-Ig fusion molecule and evaluated its use in the EAE model of inflammatory autoimmune disease. Administration of CXCL11-Ig during the first episode of relapsing EAE in SJL/J mice not only led to rapid remission, but also prevented subsequent relapse. Using GFP-expressing effector CD4+ T cells, we observed that successful therapy was associated with reduced accumulation of these cells at the autoimmune site. Finally, we showed that very low doses of CXCL11 rapidly suppress signs of EAE in C57BL/6 mice lacking functional CXCL11.
Yaniv Zohar, Gizi Wildbaum, Rostislav Novak, Andrew L. Salzman, Marcus Thelen, Ronen Alon, Yiftah Barsheshet, Christopher L. Karp, Nathan Karin
A major dose-limiting side effect associated with cancer-treating antineoplastic drugs is the development of neuropathic pain, which is not readily relieved by available analgesics. A better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie pain generation has potential to provide targets for prophylactic management of chemotherapy pain. Here, we delineate a pathway for pain that is induced by the chemotherapeutic drug vincristine sulfate (VCR). In a murine model of chemotherapy-induced allodynia, VCR treatment induced upregulation of endothelial cell adhesion properties, resulting in the infiltration of circulating CX3CR1+ monocytes into the sciatic nerve. At the endothelial-nerve interface, CX3CR1+ monocytes were activated by the chemokine CX3CL1 (also known as fractalkine [FKN]), which promoted production of reactive oxygen species that in turn activated the receptor TRPA1 in sensory neurons and evoked the pain response. Furthermore, mice lacking CX3CR1 exhibited a delay in the development of allodynia following VCR administration. Together, our data suggest that CX3CR1 antagonists and inhibition of FKN proteolytic shedding, possibly by targeting ADAM10/17 and/or cathepsin S, have potential as peripheral approaches for the prophylactic treatment of chemotherapy-induced pain.
Elizabeth A. Old, Suchita Nadkarni, John Grist, Clive Gentry, Stuart Bevan, Ki-Wook Kim, Adrian J. Mogg, Mauro Perretti, Marzia Malcangio
Genome-wide analyses determined previously that the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) EPHA2 is commonly overexpressed in non–small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). EPHA2 overexpression is associated with poor clinical outcomes; therefore, EPHA2 may represent a promising therapeutic target for patients with NSCLC. In support of this hypothesis, here we have shown that targeted disruption of
Katherine R. Amato, Shan Wang, Andrew K. Hastings, Victoria M. Youngblood, Pranav R. Santapuram, Haiying Chen, Justin M. Cates, Daniel C. Colvin, Fei Ye, Dana M. Brantley-Sieders, Rebecca S. Cook, Li Tan, Nathanael S. Gray, Jin Chen
Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) signaling mediates physiological and pathological processes in multiple organs, including the renal podocyte; however, in vivo podocyte [Ca2+]i dynamics are not fully understood. Here we developed an imaging approach that uses multiphoton microscopy (MPM) to directly visualize podocyte [Ca2+]i dynamics within the intact kidneys of live mice expressing a fluorescent calcium indicator only in these cells. [Ca2+]i was at a low steady-state level in control podocytes, while Ang II infusion caused a minor elevation. Experimental focal podocyte injury triggered a robust and sustained elevation of podocyte [Ca2+]i around the injury site and promoted cell-to-cell propagating podocyte [Ca2+]i waves along capillary loops. [Ca2+]i wave propagation was ameliorated by inhibitors of purinergic [Ca2+]i signaling as well as in animals lacking the P2Y2 purinergic receptor. Increased podocyte [Ca2+]i resulted in contraction of the glomerular tuft and increased capillary albumin permeability. In preclinical models of renal fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis, high podocyte [Ca2+]i correlated with increased cell motility. Our findings provide a visual demonstration of the in vivo importance of podocyte [Ca2+]i in glomerular pathology and suggest that purinergic [Ca2+]i signaling is a robust and key pathogenic mechanism in podocyte injury. This in vivo imaging approach will allow future detailed investigation of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of glomerular disease in the intact living kidney.
James L. Burford, Karie Villanueva, Lisa Lam, Anne Riquier-Brison, Matthias J. Hackl, Jeffrey Pippin, Stuart J. Shankland, János Peti-Peterdi
Cilia are critical mediators of paracrine signaling; however, it is unknown whether proteins that contribute to ciliopathies converge on multiple paracrine pathways through a common mechanism. Here, we show that loss of cilopathy-associated proteins Bardet-Biedl syndrome 4 (BBS4) or oral-facial-digital syndrome 1 (OFD1) results in the accumulation of signaling mediators normally targeted for proteasomal degradation. In WT cells, several BBS proteins and OFD1 interacted with proteasomal subunits, and loss of either BBS4 or OFD1 led to depletion of multiple subunits from the centrosomal proteasome. Furthermore, overexpression of proteasomal regulatory components or treatment with proteasomal activators sulforaphane (SFN) and mevalonolactone (MVA) ameliorated signaling defects in cells lacking BBS1, BBS4, and OFD1, in morphant zebrafish embryos, and in induced neurons from
Yangfan P. Liu, I-Chun Tsai, Manuela Morleo, Edwin C. Oh, Carmen C. Leitch, Filomena Massa, Byung-Hoon Lee, David S. Parker, Daniel Finley, Norann A. Zaghloul, Brunella Franco, Nicholas Katsanis
The transcription factor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1; also known as NR5A1) is a crucial mediator of both steroidogenic and nonsteroidogenic tissue differentiation. Mutations within
David Zangen, Yotam Kaufman, Ehud Banne, Ariella Weinberg-Shukron, Abdulsalam Abulibdeh, Benjamin P. Garfinkel, Dima Dweik, Moein Kanaan, Núria Camats, Christa Flück, Paul Renbaum, Ephrat Levy-Lahad
Activation of the GPCR sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) by sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) regulates key physiological processes. S1P1 activation also has been implicated in pathologic processes, including autoimmunity and inflammation; however, the in vivo sites of S1P1 activation under normal and disease conditions are unclear. Here, we describe the development of a mouse model that allows in vivo evaluation of S1P1 activation. These mice, known as S1P1 GFP signaling mice, produce a S1P1 fusion protein containing a transcription factor linked by a protease cleavage site at the C terminus as well as a β-arrestin/protease fusion protein. Activated S1P1 recruits the β-arrestin/protease, resulting in the release of the transcription factor, which stimulates the expression of a GFP reporter gene. Under normal conditions, S1P1 was activated in endothelial cells of lymphoid tissues and in cells in the marginal zone of the spleen, while administration of an S1P1 agonist promoted S1P1 activation in endothelial cells and hepatocytes. In S1P1 GFP signaling mice, LPS-mediated systemic inflammation activated S1P1 in endothelial cells and hepatocytes via hematopoietically derived S1P. These data demonstrate that S1P1 GFP signaling mice can be used to evaluate S1P1 activation and S1P1-active compounds in vivo. Furthermore, this strategy could be potentially applied to any GPCR to identify sites of receptor activation during normal physiology and disease.
Mari Kono, Ana E. Tucker, Jennifer Tran, Jennifer B. Bergner, Ewa M. Turner, Richard L. Proia
Diabetic patients exhibit a reduction in β cells, which secrete insulin to help regulate glucose homeostasis; however, little is known about the factors that regulate proliferation of these cells in human pancreas. Access to primary human β cells is limited and a challenge for both functional studies and drug discovery progress. We previously reported the generation of a human β cell line (EndoC-βH1) that was generated from human fetal pancreas by targeted oncogenesis followed by in vivo cell differentiation in mice. EndoC-βH1 cells display many functional properties of adult β cells, including expression of β cell markers and insulin secretion following glucose stimulation; however, unlike primary β cells, EndoC-βH1 cells continuously proliferate. Here, we devised a strategy to generate conditionally immortalized human β cell lines based on Cre-mediated excision of the immortalizing transgenes. The resulting cell line (EndoC-βH2) could be massively amplified in vitro. After expansion, transgenes were efficiently excised upon
Raphaël Scharfmann, Severine Pechberty, Yasmine Hazhouz, Manon von Bülow, Emilie Bricout-Neveu, Maud Grenier-Godard, Fanny Guez, Latif Rachdi, Matthias Lohmann, Paul Czernichow, Philippe Ravassard
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a highly vascularized organ with abundant mitochondria that produce heat through uncoupled respiration. Obesity is associated with a reduction of BAT function; however, it is unknown how obesity promotes dysfunctional BAT. Here, using a murine model of diet-induced obesity, we determined that obesity causes capillary rarefaction and functional hypoxia in BAT, leading to a BAT “whitening” phenotype that is characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction, lipid droplet accumulation, and decreased expression of
Ippei Shimizu, Tamar Aprahamian, Ryosuke Kikuchi, Ayako Shimizu, Kyriakos N. Papanicolaou, Susan MacLauchlan, Sonomi Maruyama, Kenneth Walsh
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection accounts for approximately 64 million cases of respiratory disease and 200,000 deaths worldwide each year, yet no broadly effective prophylactic or treatment regimen is available. RSV deploys paired, self-associating, heptad repeat domains of its fusion protein, RSV-F, to form a fusogenic 6-helix bundle that enables the virus to penetrate the host cell membrane. Here, we developed hydrocarbon double-stapled RSV fusion peptides that exhibit stabilized α-helical structure and striking proteolytic resistance. Pretreatment with double-stapled RSV peptides that specifically bound to the RSV fusion bundle inhibited infection by both laboratory and clinical RSV isolates in cells and murine infection models. Intranasal delivery of a lead double-stapled RSV peptide effectively prevented viral infection of the nares. A chitosan-based nanoparticle preparation markedly enhanced pulmonary delivery, further preventing progression of RSV infection to the lung. Thus, our results provide a strategy for inhibiting RSV infection by mucosal and endotracheal delivery of double-stapled RSV fusion peptides.
Gregory H. Bird, Sandhya Boyapalle, Terianne Wong, Kwadwo Opoku-Nsiah, Raminder Bedi, W. Christian Crannell, Alisa F. Perry, Huy Nguyen, Viviana Sampayo, Ankita Devareddy, Subhra Mohapatra, Shyam S. Mohapatra, Loren D. Walensky
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is strikingly resistant to conventional therapeutic approaches. We previously demonstrated that the histone deacetylase–associated protein SIN3B is essential for oncogene-induced senescence in cultured cells. Here, using a mouse model of pancreatic cancer, we have demonstrated that SIN3B is required for activated KRAS-induced senescence in vivo. Surprisingly, impaired senescence as the result of genetic inactivation of
Maïté Rielland, David J. Cantor, Richard Graveline, Cristina Hajdu, Lisa Mara, Beatriz de Diego Diaz, George Miller, Gregory David
In response to stress, the heart undergoes extensive cardiac remodeling that results in cardiac fibrosis and pathological growth of cardiomyocytes (hypertrophy), which contribute to heart failure. Alterations in microRNA (miRNA) levels are associated with dysfunctional gene expression profiles associated with many cardiovascular disease conditions; however, miRNAs have emerged recently as paracrine signaling mediators. Thus, we investigated a potential paracrine miRNA crosstalk between cardiac fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes and found that cardiac fibroblasts secrete miRNA-enriched exosomes. Surprisingly, evaluation of the miRNA content of cardiac fibroblast–derived exosomes revealed a relatively high abundance of many miRNA passenger strands (“star” miRNAs), which normally undergo intracellular degradation. Using confocal imaging and coculture assays, we identified fibroblast exosomal–derived miR-21_3p (miR-21*) as a potent paracrine-acting RNA molecule that induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Proteome profiling identified sorbin and SH3 domain-containing protein 2 (SORBS2) and PDZ and LIM domain 5 (PDLIM5) as miR-21* targets, and silencing SORBS2 or PDLIM5 in cardiomyocytes induced hypertrophy. Pharmacological inhibition of miR-21* in a mouse model of Ang II–induced cardiac hypertrophy attenuated pathology. These findings demonstrate that cardiac fibroblasts secrete star miRNA–enriched exosomes and identify fibroblast-derived miR-21* as a paracrine signaling mediator of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy that has potential as a therapeutic target.
Claudia Bang, Sandor Batkai, Seema Dangwal, Shashi Kumar Gupta, Ariana Foinquinos, Angelika Holzmann, Annette Just, Janet Remke, Karina Zimmer, Andre Zeug, Evgeni Ponimaskin, Andreas Schmiedl, Xiaoke Yin, Manuel Mayr, Rashi Halder, Andre Fischer, Stefan Engelhardt, Yuanyuan Wei, Andreas Schober, Jan Fiedler, Thomas Thum
In multiple forms of cancer, constitutive activation of type I IFN signaling is a critical consequence of immune surveillance against cancer; however, PBMCs isolated from cancer patients exhibit depressed STAT1 phosphorylation in response to IFN-α, suggesting IFN signaling dysfunction. Here, we demonstrated in a coculture system that melanoma cells differentially impairs the IFN-α response in PBMCs and that the inhibitory potential of a particular melanoma cell correlates with
Qiuzhen Liu, Sara Tomei, Maria Libera Ascierto, Valeria De Giorgi, Davide Bedognetti, Cuilian Dai, Lorenzo Uccellini, Tara Spivey, Zoltan Pos, Jaime Thomas, Jennifer Reinboth, Daniela Murtas, Qianbing Zhang, Lotfi Chouchane, Geoffrey R. Weiss, Craig L. Slingluff Jr., Peter P. Lee, Steven A. Rosenberg, Harvey Alter, Kaitai Yao, Ena Wang, Francesco M. Marincola
Expression of the gene encoding the S100 calcium–modulated protein family member MRP-14 (also known as S100A9) is elevated in platelets from patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction (MI) compared with those from patients with stable coronary artery disease; however, a causal role for MRP-14 in acute coronary syndromes has not been established. Here, using multiple models of vascular injury, we found that time to arterial thrombotic occlusion was markedly prolonged in
Yunmei Wang, Chao Fang, Huiyun Gao, Matthew L. Bilodeau, Zijie Zhang, Kevin Croce, Shijian Liu, Toshifumi Morooka, Masashi Sakuma, Kohsuke Nakajima, Shuichi Yoneda, Can Shi, David Zidar, Patrick Andre, Gillian Stephens, Roy L. Silverstein, Nancy Hogg, Alvin H. Schmaier, Daniel I. Simon
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) transcriptional program is characterized by repression of E-cadherin (
Cunxi Li, Haiting Ma, Yang Wang, Zheng Cao, Ramona Graves-Deal, Anne E. Powell, Alina Starchenko, Gregory D. Ayers, Mary Kay Washington, Vidya Kamath, Keyur Desai, Michael J. Gerdes, Lila Solnica-Krezel, Robert J. Coffey
Taken orally, the drug dimethyl fumarate (DMF) has been shown to improve functional outcomes for patients with MS; however, it is unclear how DMF mediates a protective effect. DMF and, more so, its active metabolite, monomethyl fumarate, are known agonists of the hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2 (HCA2), a G protein–coupled membrane receptor. Here, we evaluated the contribution of HCA2 in mediating the protective effect afforded by DMF in EAE, a mouse model of MS. DMF treatment reduced neurological deficit, immune cell infiltration, and demyelination of the spinal cords in wild-type mice, but not in
Hui Chen, Julian C. Assmann, Antje Krenz, Mahbubur Rahman, Myriam Grimm, Christian M. Karsten, Jörg Köhl, Stefan Offermanns, Nina Wettschureck, Markus Schwaninger
The majority of mammalian cells have nonmotile primary cilia on their surface that act as antenna-like sensory organelles. Genetic defects that result in ciliary dysfunction are associated with obesity in humans and rodents, which suggests that functional cilia are important for controlling energy balance. Here we demonstrated that neuronal cilia lengths were selectively reduced in hypothalami of obese mice with leptin deficiency and leptin resistance. Treatment of N1 hypothalamic neuron cells with leptin stimulated cilia assembly via inhibition of the tumor suppressors PTEN and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). Induction of short cilia in the hypothalamus of adult mice increased food intake and decreased energy expenditure, leading to a positive energy balance. Moreover, mice with short hypothalamic cilia exhibited attenuated anorectic responses to leptin, insulin, and glucose, which indicates that leptin-induced cilia assembly is essential for sensing these satiety signals by hypothalamic neurons. These data suggest that leptin governs the sensitivity of hypothalamic neurons to metabolic signals by controlling the length of the cell’s antenna.
Yu Mi Han, Gil Myoung Kang, Kyunghee Byun, Hyuk Wan Ko, Joon Kim, Mi-Seon Shin, Hyun-Kyong Kim, So Young Gil, Ji Hee Yu, Bonghee Lee, Min-Seon Kim
In a wide array of kidney diseases, type 1 angiotensin (AT1) receptors are present on the immune cells that infiltrate the renal interstitium. Here, we examined the actions of AT1 receptors on macrophages in progressive renal fibrosis and found that macrophage-specific AT1 receptor deficiency exacerbates kidney fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Macrophages isolated from obstructed kidneys of mice lacking AT1 receptors solely on macrophages had heightened expression of proinflammatory M1 cytokines, including IL-1. Evaluation of isolated AT1 receptor–deficient macrophages confirmed the propensity of these cells to produce exaggerated levels of M1 cytokines, which led to more severe renal epithelial cell damage via IL-1 receptor activation in coculture compared with WT macrophages. A murine kidney crosstransplantation concomitant with UUO model revealed that augmentation of renal fibrosis instigated by AT1 receptor–deficient macrophages is mediated by IL-1 receptor stimulation in the kidney. This study indicates that a key role of AT1 receptors on macrophages is to protect the kidney from fibrosis by limiting activation of IL-1 receptors in the kidney.
Jian-dong Zhang, Mehul B. Patel, Robert Griffiths, Paul C. Dolber, Phillip Ruiz, Matthew A. Sparks, Johannes Stegbauer, Huixia Jin, Jose A. Gomez, Anne F. Buckley, William S. Lefler, Daian Chen, Steven D. Crowley
Lymph nodes (LNs) are integral sites for the generation of immune tolerance, migration of CD4+ T cells, and induction of Tregs. Despite the importance of LNs in regulation of inflammatory responses, the LN-specific factors that regulate T cell migration and the precise LN structural domains in which differentiation occurs remain undefined. Using intravital and fluorescent microscopy, we found that alloreactive T cells traffic distinctly into the tolerant LN and colocalize in exclusive regions with alloantigen-presenting cells, a process required for Treg induction. Extracellular matrix proteins, including those of the laminin family, formed regions within the LN that were permissive for colocalization of alloantigen-presenting cells, alloreactive T cells, and Tregs. We identified unique expression patterns of laminin proteins in high endothelial venule basement membranes and the cortical ridge that correlated with alloantigen-specific immunity or immune tolerance. The ratio of laminin α4 to laminin α5 was greater in domains within tolerant LNs, compared with immune LNs, and blocking laminin α4 function or inducing laminin α5 overexpression disrupted T cell and DC localization and transmigration through tolerant LNs. Furthermore, reducing α4 laminin circumvented tolerance induction and induced cardiac allograft inflammation and rejection in murine models. This work identifies laminins as potential targets for immune modulation.
Kristi J. Warren, Daiki Iwami, Donald G. Harris, Jonathan S. Bromberg, Bryna E. Burrell
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is the major cause of bronchiolitis in young children. The factors that contribute to the increased propensity of RSV-induced distal airway disease compared with other commonly encountered respiratory viruses remain unclear. Here, we identified the RSV-encoded nonstructural 2 (NS2) protein as a viral genetic determinant for initiating RSV-induced distal airway obstruction. Infection of human cartilaginous airway epithelium (HAE) and a hamster model of disease with recombinant respiratory viruses revealed that NS2 promotes shedding of infected epithelial cells, resulting in two consequences of virus infection. First, epithelial cell shedding accelerated the reduction of virus titers, presumably by clearing virus-infected cells from airway mucosa. Second, epithelial cells shedding into the narrow-diameter bronchiolar airway lumens resulted in rapid accumulation of detached, pleomorphic epithelial cells, leading to acute distal airway obstruction. Together, these data indicate that RSV infection of the airway epithelium, via the action of NS2, promotes epithelial cell shedding, which not only accelerates viral clearance but also contributes to acute obstruction of the distal airways. Our results identify RSV NS2 as a contributing factor for the enhanced propensity of RSV to cause severe airway disease in young children and suggest NS2 as a potential therapeutic target for reducing the severity of distal airway disease.
Rachael M. Liesman, Ursula J. Buchholz, Cindy L. Luongo, Lijuan Yang, Alan D. Proia, John P. DeVincenzo, Peter L. Collins, Raymond J. Pickles
Tissue inflammation in several autoimmune diseases, including SLE and MS, has been linked to an imbalance of IL-17–producing Th (Th17) cells and Tregs; however, the factors that promote Th17-driven autoimmunity are unclear. Here, we present evidence that the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMK4) is increased and required during Th17 cell differentiation. Isolation of naive T cells from a murine model of lupus revealed increased levels of CaMK4 following stimulation with Th17-inducing cytokines but not following Treg, Th1, or Th2 induction. Furthermore, naive T cells from mice lacking CaMK4 did not produce IL-17. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of CaMK4 decreased the frequency of IL-17–producing T cells and ameliorated EAE and lupus-like disease in murine models. Inhibition of CaMK4 reduced
Tomohiro Koga, Christian M. Hedrich, Masayuki Mizui, Nobuya Yoshida, Kotaro Otomo, Linda A. Lieberman, Thomas Rauen, José C. Crispín, George C. Tsokos
Adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) can mediate regression of metastatic melanoma; however, TILs are a heterogeneous population, and there are no effective markers to specifically identify and select the repertoire of tumor-reactive and mutation-specific CD8+ lymphocytes. The lack of biomarkers limits the ability to study these cells and develop strategies to enhance clinical efficacy and extend this therapy to other malignancies. Here, we evaluated unique phenotypic traits of CD8+ TILs and TCR β chain (TCRβ) clonotypic frequency in melanoma tumors to identify patient-specific repertoires of tumor-reactive CD8+ lymphocytes. In all 6 tumors studied, expression of the inhibitory receptors programmed cell death 1 (PD-1; also known as CD279), lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG-3; also known as CD223), and T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (TIM-3) on CD8+ TILs identified the autologous tumor-reactive repertoire, including mutated neoantigen-specific CD8+ lymphocytes, whereas only a fraction of the tumor-reactive population expressed the costimulatory receptor 4-1BB (also known as CD137). TCRβ deep sequencing revealed oligoclonal expansion of specific TCRβ clonotypes in CD8+PD-1+ compared with CD8+PD-1– TIL populations. Furthermore, the most highly expanded TCRβ clonotypes in the CD8+ and the CD8+PD-1+ populations recognized the autologous tumor and included clonotypes targeting mutated antigens. Thus, in addition to the well-documented negative regulatory role of PD-1 in T cells, our findings demonstrate that PD-1 expression on CD8+ TILs also accurately identifies the repertoire of clonally expanded tumor-reactive cells and reveal a dual importance of PD-1 expression in the tumor microenvironment.
Alena Gros, Paul F. Robbins, Xin Yao, Yong F. Li, Simon Turcotte, Eric Tran, John R. Wunderlich, Arnold Mixon, Shawn Farid, Mark E. Dudley, Ken-ichi Hanada, Jorge R. Almeida, Sam Darko, Daniel C. Douek, James C. Yang, Steven A. Rosenberg
Downmodulation or loss-of-function mutations of the gene encoding NOTCH1 are associated with dysfunctional squamous cell differentiation and development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in skin and internal organs. While NOTCH1 receptor activation has been well characterized, little is known about how
Yang Sui Brooks, Paola Ostano, Seung-Hee Jo, Jun Dai, Spiro Getsios, Piotr Dziunycz, Günther F.L. Hofbauer, Kara Cerveny, Giovanna Chiorino, Karine Lefort, G. Paolo Dotto
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a secondary complication of diabetes with an unclear etiology. Based on a functional genomic evaluation of obesity-associated cardiac gene expression, we previously identified and cloned the gene encoding apolipoprotein O (APOO), which is overexpressed in hearts from diabetic patients. Here, we generated APOO-Tg mice, transgenic mouse lines that expresses physiological levels of human APOO in heart tissue. APOO-Tg mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited depressed ventricular function with reduced fractional shortening and ejection fraction, and myocardial sections from APOO-Tg mice revealed mitochondrial degenerative changes. In vivo fluorescent labeling and subcellular fractionation revealed that APOO localizes with mitochondria. Furthermore, APOO enhanced mitochondrial uncoupling and respiration, both of which were reduced by deletion of the N-terminus and by targeted knockdown of APOO. Consequently, fatty acid metabolism and ROS production were enhanced, leading to increased AMPK phosphorylation and
Annie Turkieh, Céline Caubère, Manon Barutaut, Franck Desmoulin, Romain Harmancey, Michel Galinier, Matthieu Berry, Camille Dambrin, Carlo Polidori, Louis Casteilla, François Koukoui, Philippe Rouet, Fatima Smih
Aurora Merovci, Carolina Solis-Herrera, Giuseppe Daniele, Roy Eldor, Teresa Vanessa Fiorentino, Devjit Tripathy, Juan Xiong, Zandra Perez, Luke Norton, Muhammad A. Abdul-Ghani, Ralph A. DeFronzo
Jing Liu, A. Michaela Krautzberger, Shannan H. Sui, Oliver M. Hofmann, Ying Chen, Manfred Baetscher, Ivica Grgic, Sanjeev Kumar, Benjamin D. Humphreys, Winston A. Hide, Andrew P. McMahon