Iron homeostasis is tightly regulated by the membrane iron exporter ferroportin and its regulatory peptide hormone hepcidin. The hepcidin/ferroportin axis is considered a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases of iron overload or deficiency. Here, we conducted a chemical screen in zebrafish to identify small molecules that decrease ferroportin protein levels. The chemical screen led to the identification of 3 steroid molecules, epitiostanol, progesterone, and mifepristone, which decrease ferroportin levels by increasing the biosynthesis of hepcidin. These hepcidin-inducing steroids (HISs) did not activate known hepcidin-inducing pathways, including the BMP and JAK/STAT3 pathways. Progesterone receptor membrane component-1 (PGRMC1) was required for HIS-dependent increases in hepcidin biosynthesis, as PGRMC1 depletion in cultured hepatoma cells and zebrafish blocked the ability of HISs to increase hepcidin mRNA levels. Neutralizing antibodies directed against PGRMC1 attenuated the ability of HISs to induce hepcidin gene expression. Inhibiting the kinases of the SRC family, which are downstream of PGRMC1, blocked the ability of HISs to increase hepcidin mRNA levels. Furthermore, HIS treatment increased hepcidin biosynthesis in mice and humans. Together, these data indicate that PGRMC1 regulates hepcidin gene expression through an evolutionarily conserved mechanism. These studies have identified drug candidates and potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of diseases of abnormal iron metabolism.
Xiang Li, David K. Rhee, Rajeev Malhotra, Claire Mayeur, Liam A. Hurst, Emily Ager, Georgia Shelton, Yael Kramer, David McCulloh, David Keefe, Kenneth D. Bloch, Donald B. Bloch, Randall T. Peterson
Thrombosis is a common, life-threatening consequence of systemic infection; however, the underlying mechanisms that drive the formation of infection-associated thrombi are poorly understood. Here, using a mouse model of systemic
Jessica R. Hitchcock, Charlotte N. Cook, Saeeda Bobat, Ewan A. Ross, Adriana Flores-Langarica, Kate L. Lowe, Mahmood Khan, C. Coral Dominguez-Medina, Sian Lax, Manuela Carvalho-Gaspar, Stefan Hubscher, G. Ed Rainger, Mark Cobbold, Christopher D. Buckley, Tim J. Mitchell, Andrea Mitchell, Nick D. Jones, N. Van Rooijen, Daniel Kirchhofer, Ian R. Henderson, David H. Adams, Steve P. Watson, Adam F. Cunningham
Thrombosis and inflammation are intricately linked in several major clinical disorders, including disseminated intravascular coagulation and acute ischemic events. The damage-associated molecular pattern molecule high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is upregulated by activated platelets in multiple inflammatory diseases; however, the contribution of platelet-derived HMGB1 in thrombosis remains unexplored. Here, we generated transgenic mice with platelet-specific ablation of HMGB1 and determined that platelet-derived HMGB1 is a critical mediator of thrombosis. Mice lacking HMGB1 in platelets exhibited increased bleeding times as well as reduced thrombus formation, platelet aggregation, inflammation, and organ damage during experimental trauma/hemorrhagic shock. Platelets were the major source of HMGB1 within thrombi. In trauma patients, HMGB1 expression on the surface of circulating platelets was markedly upregulated. Moreover, evaluation of isolated platelets revealed that HMGB1 is critical for regulating platelet activation, granule secretion, adhesion, and spreading. These effects were mediated via TLR4- and MyD88-dependent recruitment of platelet guanylyl cyclase (GC) toward the plasma membrane, followed by MyD88/GC complex formation and activation of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI). Thus, we establish platelet-derived HMGB1 as an important mediator of thrombosis and identify a HMGB1-driven link between MyD88 and GC/cGKI in platelets. Additionally, these findings suggest a potential therapeutic target for patients sustaining trauma and other inflammatory disorders associated with abnormal coagulation.
Sebastian Vogel, Rebecca Bodenstein, Qiwei Chen, Susanne Feil, Robert Feil, Johannes Rheinlaender, Tilman E. Schäffer, Erwin Bohn, Julia-Stefanie Frick, Oliver Borst, Patrick Münzer, Britta Walker, Justin Markel, Gabor Csanyi, Patrick J. Pagano, Patricia Loughran, Morgan E. Jessup, Simon C. Watkins, Grant C. Bullock, Jason L. Sperry, Brian S. Zuckerbraun, Timothy R. Billiar, Michael T. Lotze, Meinrad Gawaz, Matthew D. Neal
Erythropoiesis requires rapid and extensive hemoglobin production. Heme activates globin transcription and translation; therefore, heme synthesis must precede globin synthesis. As free heme is a potent inducer of oxidative damage, its levels within cellular compartments require stringent regulation. Mice lacking the heme exporter FLVCR1 have a severe macrocytic anemia; however, the mechanisms that underlie erythropoiesis dysfunction in these animals are unclear. Here, we determined that erythropoiesis failure occurs in these animals at the CFU-E/proerythroblast stage, a point at which the transferrin receptor (CD71) is upregulated, iron is imported, and heme is synthesized — before ample globin is produced. From the CFU-E/proerythroblast (CD71+ Ter119– cells) stage onward, erythroid progenitors exhibited excess heme content, increased cytoplasmic ROS, and increased apoptosis. Reducing heme synthesis in FLVCR1-defient animals via genetic and biochemical approaches improved the anemia, implying that heme excess causes, and is not just associated with, the erythroid marrow failure. Expression of the cell surface FLVCR1 isoform, but not the mitochondrial FLVCR1 isoform, restored normal rbc production, demonstrating that cellular heme export is essential. Together, these studies provide insight into how heme is regulated to allow effective erythropoiesis, show that erythropoiesis fails when heme is excessive, and emphasize the importance of evaluating Ter119– erythroid cells when studying erythroid marrow failure in murine models.
Raymond T. Doty, Susan R. Phelps, Christina Shadle, Marilyn Sanchez-Bonilla, Siobán B. Keel, Janis L. Abkowitz
Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) has two distinct CGHC redox-active sites; however, the contribution of these sites during different physiologic reactions, including thrombosis, is unknown. Here, we evaluated the role of PDI and redox-active sites of PDI in thrombosis by generating mice with blood cells and vessel wall cells lacking PDI (
Junsong Zhou, Yi Wu, Lu Wang, Lubica Rauova, Vincent M. Hayes, Mortimer Poncz, David W. Essex
The development of inhibitory antibodies to factor VIII (FVIII) is a major obstacle in using this clotting factor to treat individuals with hemophilia A. Patients with a congenital absence of FVIII do not develop central tolerance to FVIII, and therefore, any control of their FVIII-reactive lymphocytes relies upon peripheral tolerance mechanisms. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is a key regulatory enzyme that supports Treg function and peripheral tolerance in adult life. Here, we investigated the association between IDO1 competence and inhibitor status by evaluating hemophilia A patients harboring F8-null mutations that were either inhibitor negative (
Davide Matino, Marco Gargaro, Elena Santagostino, Matteo N.D. Di Minno, Giancarlo Castaman, Massimo Morfini, Angiola Rocino, Maria E. Mancuso, Giovanni Di Minno, Antonio Coppola, Vincenzo N. Talesa, Claudia Volpi, Carmine Vacca, Ciriana Orabona, Rossana Iannitti, Maria G. Mazzucconi, Cristina Santoro, Antonella Tosti, Sara Chiappalupi, Guglielmo Sorci, Giuseppe Tagariello, Donata Belvini, Paolo Radossi, Raffaele Landolfi, Dietmar Fuchs, Louis Boon, Matteo Pirro, Emanuela Marchesini, Ursula Grohmann, Paolo Puccetti, Alfonso Iorio, Francesca Fallarino
Inherited thrombocytopenias are a group of disorders that are characterized by a low platelet count and are sometimes associated with excessive bleeding that ranges from mild to severe. We evaluated 36 unrelated patients and 17 family members displaying thrombocytopenia that were recruited to the UK Genotyping and Phenotyping of Platelets (GAPP) study. All patients had a history of excessive bleeding of unknown etiology. We performed platelet phenotyping and whole-exome sequencing (WES) on all patients and identified mutations in schlafen 14 (
Sarah J. Fletcher, Ben Johnson, Gillian C. Lowe, Danai Bem, Sian Drake, Marie Lordkipanidzé, Isabel Sánchez Guiú, Ban Dawood, José Rivera, Michael A. Simpson, Martina E. Daly, Jayashree Motwani, Peter W. Collins, Steve P. Watson, Neil V. Morgan, on behalf of the UK Genotyping and Phenotyping of Platelets study group
Epigenetic regulators play critical roles in normal hematopoiesis, and the activity of these enzymes is frequently altered in hematopoietic cancers. The major type II protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 catalyzes the formation of symmetric dimethyl arginine and has been implicated in various cellular processes, including pluripotency and tumorigenesis. Here, we generated
Fan Liu, Guoyan Cheng, Pierre-Jacques Hamard, Sarah Greenblatt, Lan Wang, Na Man, Fabiana Perna, Haiming Xu, Madhavi Tadi, Luisa Luciani, Stephen D. Nimer
neutropenia (SCN) is often associated with inherited heterozygous point
Ramesh C. Nayak, Lisa R. Trump, Bruce J. Aronow, Kasiani Myers, Parinda Mehta, Theodosia Kalfa, Ashley M. Wellendorf, C. Alexander Valencia, Patrick J. Paddison, Marshall S. Horwitz, H. Leighton Grimes, Carolyn Lutzko, Jose A. Cancelas
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are characterized by the clonal expansion of one or more myeloid cell lineage. In most cases, proliferation of the malignant clone is ascribed to defined genetic alterations. MPNs are also associated with aberrant expression and activity of multiple cytokines; however, the mechanisms by which these cytokines contribute to disease pathogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we reveal a non-redundant role for steady-state IL-33 in supporting dysregulated myelopoiesis in a murine model of MPN. Genetic ablation of the IL-33 signaling pathway was sufficient and necessary to restore normal hematopoiesis and abrogate MPN-like disease in animals lacking the inositol phosphatase SHIP. Stromal cell–derived IL-33 stimulated the secretion of cytokines and growth factors by myeloid and non-hematopoietic cells of the BM, resulting in myeloproliferation in SHIP-deficient animals. Additionally, in the transgenic JAK2V617F model, the onset of MPN was delayed in animals lacking IL-33 in radio-resistant cells. In human BM, we detected increased numbers of IL-33–expressing cells, specifically in biopsies from MPN patients. Exogenous IL-33 promoted cytokine production and colony formation by primary CD34+ MPN stem/progenitor cells from patients. Moreover, IL-33 improved the survival of JAK2V617F-positive cell lines. Together, these data indicate a central role for IL-33 signaling in the pathogenesis of MPNs.
Lukas F. Mager, Carsten Riether, Christian M. Schürch, Yara Banz, Marie-Hélène Wasmer, Regula Stuber, Alexandre P. Theocharides, Xiaohong Li, Yu Xia, Hirohisa Saito, Susumu Nakae, Gabriela M. Baerlocher, Markus G. Manz, Kathy D. McCoy, Andrew J. Macpherson, Adrian F. Ochsenbein, Bruce Beutler, Philippe Krebs
Transfusion of donor-derived platelets is commonly used for thrombocytopenia, which results from a variety of clinical conditions and relies on a constant donor supply due to the limited shelf life of these cells. Embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells represent a potential source of megakaryocytes and platelets for transfusion therapies; however, the majority of current ES/iPS cell differentiation protocols are limited by low yields of hematopoietic progeny. In both mice and humans, mutations in the gene-encoding transcription factor GATA1 cause an accumulation of proliferating, developmentally arrested megakaryocytes, suggesting that GATA1 suppression in ES and iPS cell–derived hematopoietic progenitors may enhance megakaryocyte production. Here, we engineered ES cells from WT mice to express a doxycycline-regulated (dox-regulated) shRNA that targets
Ji-Yoon Noh, Shilpa Gandre-Babbe, Yuhuan Wang, Vincent Hayes, Yu Yao, Paul Gadue, Spencer K. Sullivan, Stella T. Chou, Kellie R. Machlus, Joseph E. Italiano Jr., Michael Kyba, David Finkelstein, Jacob C. Ulirsch, Vijay G. Sankaran, Deborah L. French, Mortimer Poncz, Mitchell J. Weiss
A transition from fetal hemoglobin (HbF) to adult hemoglobin (HbA) normally occurs within a few months after birth. Increased production of HbF after this period of infancy ameliorates clinical symptoms of the major disorders of adult β-hemoglobin: β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease. The transcription factor BCL11A silences HbF and has been an attractive therapeutic target for increasing HbF levels; however, it is not clear to what extent BCL11A inhibits HbF production or mediates other developmental functions in humans. Here, we identified and characterized 3 patients with rare microdeletions of 2p15-p16.1 who presented with an autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay. Moreover, these patients all exhibited substantial persistence of HbF but otherwise retained apparently normal hematologic and immunologic function. Of the genes within 2p15-p16.1, only
Anindita Basak, Miroslava Hancarova, Jacob C. Ulirsch, Tugce B. Balci, Marie Trkova, Michal Pelisek, Marketa Vlckova, Katerina Muzikova, Jaroslav Cermak, Jan Trka, David A. Dyment, Stuart H. Orkin, Mark J. Daly, Zdenek Sedlacek, Vijay G. Sankaran
Rapidly cycling fetal and neonatal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) generate a pool of quiescent adult HSCs after establishing hematopoiesis in the bone marrow. We report an essential role for the trithorax group gene absent, small, or homeotic 1-like (
Morgan Jones, Jennifer Chase, Michelle Brinkmeier, Jing Xu, Daniel N. Weinberg, Julien Schira, Ann Friedman, Sami Malek, Jolanta Grembecka, Tomasz Cierpicki, Yali Dou, Sally A. Camper, Ivan Maillard
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) first emerge during embryonic development within vessels such as the dorsal aorta of the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region, suggesting that signals from the vascular microenvironment are critical for HSC development. Here, we demonstrated that AGM-derived endothelial cells (ECs) engineered to constitutively express AKT (AGM AKT-ECs) can provide an in vitro niche that recapitulates embryonic HSC specification and amplification. Specifically, nonengrafting embryonic precursors, including the VE-cadherin–expressing population that lacks hematopoietic surface markers, cocultured with AGM AKT-ECs specified into long-term, adult-engrafting HSCs, establishing that a vascular niche is sufficient to induce the endothelial-to-HSC transition in vitro. Subsequent to hematopoietic induction, coculture with AGM AKT-ECs also substantially increased the numbers of HSCs derived from VE-cadherin+CD45+ AGM hematopoietic cells, consistent with a role in supporting further HSC maturation and self-renewal. We also identified conditions that included NOTCH activation with an immobilized NOTCH ligand that were sufficient to amplify AGM-derived HSCs following their specification in the absence of AGM AKT-ECs. Together, these studies begin to define the critical niche components and resident signals required for HSC induction and self-renewal ex vivo, and thus provide insight for development of defined in vitro systems targeted toward HSC generation for therapeutic applications.
Brandon K. Hadland, Barbara Varnum-Finney, Michael G. Poulos, Randall T. Moon, Jason M. Butler, Shahin Rafii, Irwin D. Bernstein
The small GTPase RAP1 is critical for platelet activation and thrombus formation. RAP1 activity in platelets is controlled by the GEF CalDAG-GEFI and an unknown regulator that operates downstream of the adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor, P2Y12, a target of antithrombotic therapy. Here, we provide evidence that the GAP, RASA3, inhibits platelet activation and provides a link between P2Y12 and activation of the RAP1 signaling pathway. In mice, reduced expression of RASA3 led to premature platelet activation and markedly reduced the life span of circulating platelets. The increased platelet turnover and the resulting thrombocytopenia were reversed by concomitant deletion of the gene encoding CalDAG-GEFI.
Lucia Stefanini, David S. Paul, Raymond F. Robledo, E. Ricky Chan, Todd M. Getz, Robert A. Campbell, Daniel O. Kechele, Caterina Casari, Raymond Piatt, Kathleen M. Caron, Nigel Mackman, Andrew S. Weyrich, Matthew C. Parrott, Yacine Boulaftali, Mark D. Adams, Luanne L. Peters, Wolfgang Bergmeier
Macrocytic anemia with abnormal erythropoiesis is a common feature of megaloblastic anemias, congenital dyserythropoietic anemias, and myelodysplastic syndromes. Here, we characterized a family with multiple female individuals who have macrocytic anemia. The proband was noted to have dyserythropoiesis and iron overload. After an extensive diagnostic evaluation that did not provide insight into the cause of the disease, whole-exome sequencing of multiple family members revealed the presence of a mutation in the X chromosomal gene
Vijay G. Sankaran, Jacob C. Ulirsch, Vassili Tchaikovskii, Leif S. Ludwig, Aoi Wakabayashi, Senkottuvelan Kadirvel, R. Coleman Lindsley, Rafael Bejar, Jiahai Shi, Scott B. Lovitch, David F. Bishop, David P. Steensma
Extracellular ATP is a signal of tissue damage and induces macrophage responses that amplify inflammation and coagulation. Here we demonstrate that ATP signaling through macrophage P2X7 receptors uncouples the thioredoxin (TRX)/TRX reductase (TRXR) system and activates the inflammasome through endosome-generated ROS. TRXR and inflammasome activity promoted filopodia formation, cellular release of reduced TRX, and generation of extracellular thiol pathway–dependent, procoagulant microparticles (MPs). Additionally, inflammasome-induced activation of an intracellular caspase-1/calpain cysteine protease cascade degraded filamin, thereby severing bonds between the cytoskeleton and tissue factor (TF), the cell surface receptor responsible for coagulation activation. This cascade enabled TF trafficking from rafts to filopodia and ultimately onto phosphatidylserine-positive, highly procoagulant MPs. Furthermore, caspase-1 specifically facilitated cell surface actin exposure, which was required for the final release of highly procoagulant MPs from filopodia. Together, the results of this study delineate a thromboinflammatory pathway and suggest that components of this pathway have potential as pharmacological targets to simultaneously attenuate inflammation and innate immune cell–induced thrombosis.
Andrea S. Rothmeier, Patrizia Marchese, Brian G. Petrich, Christian Furlan-Freguia, Mark H. Ginsberg, Zaverio M. Ruggeri, Wolfram Ruf
Posttranslationally modified proteins serve as autoimmunogenic targets in a wide spectrum of autoimmune diseases. Here, we identified a posttranslationally modified paraprotein target (paratargs) in monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance (MGUS), multiple myelomas (MM), and Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemias (WM) using protein macroarrays that were sumoylated and screened for reactivity with paraproteins from MGUS, MM, and WM patients. We found that paraproteins from a proportion of European, African-American, and Japanese patients specifically reacted with the sumoylated heat-shock protein 90 β isoform-α (HSP90-SUMO1, where SUMO indicates
Klaus-Dieter Preuss, Michael Pfreundschuh, Natalie Fadle, Evi Regitz, Boris Kubuschok
Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function is regulated by activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) counterbalance RTK signaling; however, the functions of receptor PTPs in HSCs remain incompletely understood. We found that a receptor PTP, PTPσ, was substantially overexpressed in mouse and human HSCs compared with more mature hematopoietic cells. Competitive transplantation of bone marrow cells from PTPσ-deficient mice revealed that the loss of PTPσ substantially increased long-term HSC-repopulating capacity compared with BM cells from control mice. While HSCs from PTPσ-deficient mice had no apparent alterations in cell-cycle status, apoptosis, or homing capacity, these HSCs exhibited increased levels of activated RAC1, a RhoGTPase that regulates HSC engraftment capacity. shRNA-mediated silencing of PTPσ also increased activated RAC1 levels in wild-type HSCs. Functionally, PTPσ-deficient BM cells displayed increased cobblestone area–forming cell (CAFC) capacity and augmented transendothelial migration capacity, which was abrogated by RAC inhibition. Specific selection of human cord blood CD34+CD38–CD45RA–lin– PTPσ– cells substantially increased the repopulating capacity of human HSCs compared with CD34+CD38–CD45RA–lin– cells and CD34+CD38–CD45RA–lin–PTPσ+ cells. Our results demonstrate that PTPσ regulates HSC functional capacity via RAC1 inhibition and suggest that selecting for PTPσ-negative human HSCs may be an effective strategy for enriching human HSCs for transplantation.
Mamle Quarmyne, Phuong L. Doan, Heather A. Himburg, Xiao Yan, Mai Nakamura, Liman Zhao, Nelson J. Chao, John P. Chute
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are highly susceptible to ionizing radiation–mediated death via induction of ROS, DNA double-strand breaks, and apoptotic pathways. The development of therapeutics capable of mitigating ionizing radiation–induced hematopoietic toxicity could benefit both victims of acute radiation sickness and patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation. Unfortunately, therapies capable of accelerating hematopoietic reconstitution following lethal radiation exposure have remained elusive. Here, we found that systemic administration of pleiotrophin (PTN), a protein that is secreted by BM-derived endothelial cells, substantially increased the survival of mice following radiation exposure and after myeloablative BM transplantation. In both models, PTN increased survival by accelerating the recovery of BM hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in vivo. PTN treatment promoted HSC regeneration via activation of the RAS pathway in mice that expressed protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-zeta (PTPRZ), whereas PTN treatment did not induce RAS signaling in PTPRZ-deficient mice, suggesting that PTN-mediated activation of RAS was dependent upon signaling through PTPRZ. PTN strongly inhibited HSC cycling following irradiation, whereas RAS inhibition abrogated PTN-mediated induction of HSC quiescence, blocked PTN-mediated recovery of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and abolished PTN-mediated survival of irradiated mice. These studies demonstrate the therapeutic potential of PTN to improve survival after myeloablation and suggest that PTN-mediated hematopoietic regeneration occurs in a RAS-dependent manner.
Heather A. Himburg, Xiao Yan, Phuong L. Doan, Mamle Quarmyne, Eva Micewicz, William McBride, Nelson J. Chao, Dennis J. Slamon, John P. Chute