Pancreatic β cell dysfunction is pathognomonic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is driven by environmental and genetic factors. β cell responses to glucose and to incretins such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are altered in the disease state. While rodent β cells act as a coordinated syncytium to drive insulin release, this property is unexplored in human islets. In situ imaging approaches were therefore used to monitor in real time the islet dynamics underlying hormone release. We found that GLP-1 and GIP recruit a highly coordinated subnetwork of β cells that are targeted by lipotoxicity to suppress insulin secretion. Donor BMI was negatively correlated with subpopulation responses to GLP-1, suggesting that this action of incretin contributes to functional β cell mass in vivo. Conversely, exposure of mice to a high-fat diet unveiled a role for incretin in maintaining coordinated islet activity, supporting the existence of species-specific strategies to maintain normoglycemia. These findings demonstrate that β cell connectedness is an inherent property of human islets that is likely to influence incretin-potentiated insulin secretion and may be perturbed by diabetogenic insults to disrupt glucose homeostasis in humans.
David J. Hodson, Ryan K. Mitchell, Elisa A. Bellomo, Gao Sun, Laurent Vinet, Paolo Meda, Daliang Li, Wen-Hong Li, Marco Bugliani, Piero Marchetti, Domenico Bosco, Lorenzo Piemonti, Paul Johnson, Stephen J. Hughes, Guy A. Rutter
Amélie Bonnefond, Anne Raimondo, Fanny Stutzmann, Maya Ghoussaini, Shwetha Ramachandrappa, David C. Bersten, Emmanuelle Durand, Vincent Vatin, Beverley Balkau, Olivier Lantieri, Violeta Raverdy, François Pattou, Wim Van Hul, Luc Van Gaal, Daniel J. Peet, Jacques Weill, Jennifer L. Miller, Fritz Horber, Anthony P. Goldstone, Daniel J. Driscoll, John B. Bruning, David Meyre, Murray L. Whitelaw, Philippe Froguel
Misfolding of exportable proteins can trigger endocrinopathies. For example, misfolding of insulin can result in autosomal dominant mutant
Jordan Wright, Xiaofan Wang, Leena Haataja, Aaron P. Kellogg, Jaemin Lee, Ming Liu, Peter Arvan
The osteoblast-derived hormone osteocalcin promotes testosterone biosynthesis in the mouse testis by binding to GPRC6A in Leydig cells. Interestingly,
Franck Oury, Mathieu Ferron, Wang Huizhen, Cyrille Confavreux, Lin Xu, Julie Lacombe, Prashanth Srinivas, Alexandre Chamouni, Francesca Lugani, Herve Lejeune, T. Rajendra Kumar, Ingrid Plotton, Gerard Karsenty
To explore the physiological functions of endothelin-2 (ET-2), we generated gene-targeted mouse models. Global
Inik Chang, Alexa N. Bramall, Amy Greenstein Baynash, Amir Rattner, Dinesh Rakheja, Martin Post, Stephen Joza, Colin McKerlie, Duncan J. Stewart, Roderick R. McInnes, Masashi Yanagisawa
Type II deiodinase (D2) activates thyroid hormone by converting thyroxine (T4) to 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3). This allows plasma T4 to signal a negative feedback loop that inhibits production of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the pituitary. To determine the relative contributions of these D2 pathways in the feedback loop, we developed 2 mouse strains with pituitary- and astrocyte-specific
Tatiana L. Fonseca, Mayrin Correa-Medina, Maira P.O. Campos, Gabor Wittmann, Joao P. Werneck-de-Castro, Rafael Arrojo e Drigo, Magda Mora-Garzon, Cintia Bagne Ueta, Alejandro Caicedo, Csaba Fekete, Balazs Gereben, Ronald M. Lechan, Antonio C. Bianco
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has emerged as a major threat to human health in most parts of the world. Therapeutic strategies aimed at improving pancreatic β cell function are predicted to prove beneficial for the treatment of T2D. In the present study, we demonstrate that drug-mediated, chronic, and selective activation of β cell Gq signaling greatly improve β cell function and glucose homeostasis in mice. These beneficial metabolic effects were accompanied by the enhanced expression of many genes critical for β cell function, maintenance, and differentiation. By employing a combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches, we identified a novel β cell pathway through which receptor-activated Gq leads to the sequential activation of ERK1/2 and IRS2 signaling, thus triggering a series of events that greatly improve β cell function. Importantly, we found that chronic stimulation of a designer Gq-coupled receptor selectively expressed in β cells prevented both streptozotocin-induced diabetes and the metabolic deficits associated with the consumption of a high-fat diet in mice. Since β cells are endowed with numerous receptors that mediate their cellular effects via activation of Gq-type G proteins, our findings provide a rational basis for the development of novel antidiabetic drugs targeting this class of receptors.
Shalini Jain, Inigo Ruiz de Azua, Huiyan Lu, Morris F. White, Jean-Marc Guettier, Jürgen Wess
Insulin-secreting β cells and glucagon-secreting α cells maintain physiological blood glucose levels, and their malfunction drives diabetes development. Using ChIP sequencing and RNA sequencing analysis, we determined the epigenetic and transcriptional landscape of human pancreatic α, β, and exocrine cells. We found that, compared with exocrine and β cells, differentiated α cells exhibited many more genes bivalently marked by the activating H3K4me3 and repressing H3K27me3 histone modifications. This was particularly true for β cell signature genes involved in transcriptional regulation. Remarkably, thousands of these genes were in a monovalent state in β cells, carrying only the activating or repressing mark. Our epigenomic findings suggested that α to β cell reprogramming could be promoted by manipulating the histone methylation signature of human pancreatic islets. Indeed, we show that treatment of cultured pancreatic islets with a histone methyltransferase inhibitor leads to colocalization of both glucagon and insulin and glucagon and insulin promoter factor 1 (PDX1) in human islets and colocalization of both glucagon and insulin in mouse islets. Thus, mammalian pancreatic islet cells display cell-type–specific epigenomic plasticity, suggesting that epigenomic manipulation could provide a path to cell reprogramming and novel cell replacement-based therapies for diabetes.
Nuria C. Bramswig, Logan J. Everett, Jonathan Schug, Craig Dorrell, Chengyang Liu, Yanping Luo, Philip R. Streeter, Ali Naji, Markus Grompe, Klaus H. Kaestner
Klotho is a potent regulator of 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] formation and calcium-phosphate metabolism. Klotho-hypomorphic mice (
Jakob Voelkl, Ioana Alesutan, Christina B. Leibrock, Leticia Quintanilla-Martinez, Volker Kuhn, Martina Feger, Sobuj Mia, Mohamed S.E. Ahmed, Kevin P. Rosenblatt, Makoto Kuro-o, Florian Lang
Thyroid hormone is well known for its profound direct effects on cardiovascular function and metabolism. Recent evidence, however, suggests that the hormone also regulates these systems indirectly through the central nervous system. While some of the molecular mechanisms underlying the hormone’s central control of metabolism have been identified, its actions in the central cardiovascular control have remained enigmatic. Here, we describe a previously unknown population of parvalbuminergic neurons in the anterior hypothalamus that requires thyroid hormone receptor signaling for proper development. Specific stereotaxic ablation of these cells in the mouse resulted in hypertension and temperature-dependent tachycardia, indicating a role in the central autonomic control of blood pressure and heart rate. Moreover, the neurons exhibited intrinsic temperature sensitivity in patch-clamping experiments, providing a new connection between cardiovascular function and core temperature. Thus, the data identify what we believe to be a novel hypothalamic cell population potentially important for understanding hypertension and indicate developmental hypothyroidism as an epigenetic risk factor for cardiovascular disorders. Furthermore, the findings may be beneficial for treatment of the recently identified patients that have a mutation in thyroid hormone receptor α1.
Jens Mittag, David J. Lyons, Johan Sällström, Milica Vujovic, Susi Dudazy-Gralla, Amy Warner, Karin Wallis, Anneke Alkemade, Kristina Nordström, Hannah Monyer, Christian Broberger, Anders Arner, Björn Vennström