Liver X receptors (LXR) are stimulated by cholesterol-derived oxysterols and serve as transcription factors to regulate gene expression in response to alterations in cholesterol. In the present study, we investigated the role of LXRs in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and discovered that LXRβ has nonnuclear function and stimulates EC migration by activating endothelial NOS (eNOS). This process is mediated by estrogen receptor-α (ERα). LXR activation promoted the direct binding of LXRβ to the ligand-binding domain of ERα and initiated an extranuclear signaling cascade that requires ERα Ser118 phosphorylation by PI3K/AKT. Further studies revealed that LXRβ and ERα are colocalized and functionally coupled in EC plasma membrane caveolae/lipid rafts. In isolated aortic rings, LXR activation of NOS caused relaxation, while in mice, LXR activation stimulated carotid artery reendothelialization via LXRβ- and ERα-dependent processes. These studies demonstrate that LXRβ has nonnuclear function in EC caveolae/lipid rafts that entails crosstalk with ERα, which promotes NO production and maintains endothelial monolayer integrity in vivo.
Tomonori Ishikawa, Ivan S. Yuhanna, Junko Umetani, Wan-Ru Lee, Kenneth S. Korach, Philip W. Shaul, Michihisa Umetani
Septic shock is characterized by increased vascular permeability and hypotension despite increased cardiac output. Numerous vasoactive cytokines are upregulated during sepsis, including angiopoietin 2 (ANG2), which increases vascular permeability. Here we report that mice engineered to inducibly overexpress ANG2 in the endothelium developed sepsis-like hemodynamic alterations, including systemic hypotension, increased cardiac output, and dilatory cardiomyopathy. Conversely, mice with cardiomyocyte-restricted ANG2 overexpression failed to develop hemodynamic alterations. Interestingly, the hemodynamic alterations associated with endothelial-specific overexpression of ANG2 and the loss of capillary-associated pericytes were reversed by intravenous injections of adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) transducing cDNA for angiopoietin 1, a TIE2 ligand that antagonizes ANG2, or AAVs encoding PDGFB, a chemoattractant for pericytes. To confirm the role of ANG2 in sepsis, we i.p. injected LPS into C57BL/6J mice, which rapidly developed hypotension, acute pericyte loss, and increased vascular permeability. Importantly, ANG2 antibody treatment attenuated LPS-induced hemodynamic alterations and reduced the mortality rate at 36 hours from 95% to 61%. These data indicate that ANG2-mediated microvascular disintegration contributes to septic shock and that inhibition of the ANG2/TIE2 interaction during sepsis is a potential therapeutic target.
Tilman Ziegler, Jan Horstkotte, Claudia Schwab, Vanessa Pfetsch, Karolina Weinmann, Steffen Dietzel, Ina Rohwedder, Rabea Hinkel, Lisa Gross, Seungmin Lee, Junhao Hu, Oliver Soehnlein, Wolfgang M. Franz, Markus Sperandio, Ulrich Pohl, Markus Thomas, Christian Weber, Hellmut G. Augustin, Reinhard Fässler, Urban Deutsch, Christian Kupatt
Retinal vessel homeostasis ensures normal ocular functions. Consequently, retinal hypovascularization and neovascularization, causing a lack and an excess of vessels, respectively, are hallmarks of human retinal pathology. We provide evidence that EC-specific genetic ablation of either the transcription factor SRF or its cofactors MRTF-A and MRTF-B, but not the SRF cofactors ELK1 or ELK4, cause retinal hypovascularization in the postnatal mouse eye. Inducible, EC-specific deficiency of SRF or MRTF-A/MRTF-B during postnatal angiogenesis impaired endothelial tip cell filopodia protrusion, resulting in incomplete formation of the retinal primary vascular plexus, absence of the deep plexi, and persistence of hyaloid vessels. All of these features are typical of human hypovascularization-related vitreoretinopathies, such as familial exudative vitreoretinopathies including Norrie disease. In contrast, conditional EC deletion of
Christine Weinl, Heidemarie Riehle, Dongjeong Park, Christine Stritt, Susanne Beck, Gesine Huber, Hartwig Wolburg, Eric N. Olson, Mathias W. Seeliger, Ralf H. Adams, Alfred Nordheim
Lymphatic vessels are thought to arise from PROX1-positive endothelial cells (ECs) in the cardinal vein in response to induction of SOX18 expression; however, the molecular event responsible for increased SOX18 expression has not been established. We generated mice with endothelial-specific, inducible expression of an
Yong Deng, Deepak Atri, Anne Eichmann, Michael Simons
Human vascular malformations cause disease as a result of changes in blood flow and vascular hemodynamic forces. Although the genetic mutations that underlie the formation of many human vascular malformations are known, the extent to which abnormal blood flow can subsequently influence the vascular genetic program and natural history is not. Loss of the SH2 domain–containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa (SLP76) resulted in a vascular malformation that directed blood flow through mesenteric lymphatic vessels after birth in mice. Mesenteric vessels in the position of the congenital lymphatic in mature Slp76-null mice lacked lymphatic identity and expressed a marker of blood vessel identity. Genetic lineage tracing demonstrated that this change in vessel identity was the result of lymphatic endothelial cell reprogramming rather than replacement by blood endothelial cells. Exposure of lymphatic vessels to blood in the absence of significant flow did not alter vessel identity in vivo, but lymphatic endothelial cells exposed to similar levels of shear stress ex vivo rapidly lost expression of PROX1, a lymphatic fate–specifying transcription factor. These findings reveal that blood flow can convert lymphatic vessels to blood vessels, demonstrating that hemodynamic forces may reprogram endothelial and vessel identity in cardiovascular diseases associated with abnormal flow.
Chiu-Yu Chen, Cara Bertozzi, Zhiying Zou, Lijun Yuan, John S. Lee, MinMin Lu, Stan J. Stachelek, Sathish Srinivasan, Lili Guo, Andres Vincente, Patricia Mericko, Robert J. Levy, Taija Makinen, Guillermo Oliver, Mark L. Kahn
EC activation and dysfunction have been linked to a variety of vascular inflammatory disease states. The function of microRNAs (miRNAs) in vascular EC activation and inflammation remains poorly understood. Herein, we report that microRNA-181b (miR-181b) serves as a potent regulator of downstream NF-κB signaling in the vascular endothelium by targeting importin-α3, a protein that is required for nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Overexpression of miR-181b inhibited importin-α3 expression and an enriched set of NF-κB–responsive genes such as adhesion molecules VCAM-1 and E-selectin in ECs in vitro and in vivo. In addition, treatment of mice with proinflammatory stimuli reduced miR-181b expression. Rescue of miR-181b levels by systemic administration of miR-181b “mimics” reduced downstream NF-κB signaling and leukocyte influx in the vascular endothelium and decreased lung injury and mortality in endotoxemic mice. In contrast, miR-181b inhibition exacerbated endotoxin-induced NF-κB activity, leukocyte influx, and lung injury. Finally, we observed that critically ill patients with sepsis had reduced levels of miR-181b compared with control intensive care unit (ICU) subjects. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that miR-181b regulates NF-κB–mediated EC activation and vascular inflammation in response to proinflammatory stimuli and that rescue of miR-181b expression could provide a new target for antiinflammatory therapy and critical illness.
Xinghui Sun, Basak Icli, Akm Khyrul Wara, Nathan Belkin, Shaolin He, Lester Kobzik, Gary M. Hunninghake, Miguel Pinilla Vera, Timothy S. Blackwell, Rebecca M. Baron, Mark W. Feinberg
Angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) is a key regulator of angiogenesis that exerts context-dependent effects on ECs. ANG-2 binds the endothelial-specific receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (TIE2) and acts as a negative regulator of ANG-1/TIE2 signaling during angiogenesis, thereby controlling the responsiveness of ECs to exogenous cytokines. Recent data from tumors indicate that under certain conditions ANG-2 can also promote angiogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms of dual ANG-2 functions are poorly understood. Here, we identify a model for the opposing roles of ANG-2 in angiogenesis. We found that angiogenesis-activated endothelium harbored a subpopulation of TIE2-negative ECs (TIE2lo). TIE2 expression was downregulated in angiogenic ECs, which abundantly expressed several integrins. ANG-2 bound to these integrins in TIE2lo ECs, subsequently inducing, in a TIE2-independent manner, phosphorylation of the integrin adaptor protein FAK, resulting in RAC1 activation, migration, and sprouting angiogenesis. Correspondingly, in vivo ANG-2 blockade interfered with integrin signaling and inhibited FAK phosphorylation and sprouting angiogenesis of TIE2lo ECs. These data establish a contextual model whereby differential TIE2 and integrin expression, binding, and activation control the role of ANG-2 in angiogenesis. The results of this study have immediate translational implications for the therapeutic exploitation of angiopoietin signaling.
Moritz Felcht, Robert Luck, Alexander Schering, Philipp Seidel, Kshitij Srivastava, Junhao Hu, Arne Bartol, Yvonne Kienast, Christiane Vettel, Elias K. Loos, Simone Kutschera, Susanne Bartels, Sila Appak, Eva Besemfelder, Dorothee Terhardt, Emmanouil Chavakis, Thomas Wieland, Christian Klein, Markus Thomas, Akiyoshi Uemura, Sergij Goerdt, Hellmut G. Augustin
Nitric oxide (NO) plays an essential role in regulating hypertension and blood flow by inducing relaxation of vascular smooth muscle. Male mice deficient in a NO receptor component, the α1 subunit of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGCα1), are prone to hypertension in some, but not all, mouse strains, suggesting that additional genetic factors contribute to the onset of hypertension. Using linkage analyses, we discovered a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 1 that was linked to mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the context of sGCα1 deficiency. This region is syntenic with previously identified blood pressure–related QTLs in the human and rat genome and contains the genes coding for renin. Hypertension was associated with increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Further, we found that RAAS inhibition normalized MAP and improved endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in sGCα1-deficient mice. These data identify the RAAS as a blood pressure–modifying mechanism in a setting of impaired NO/cGMP signaling.
Emmanuel S. Buys, Michael J. Raher, Andrew Kirby, Shahid Mohd, David M. Baron, Sarah R. Hayton, Laurel T. Tainsh, Patrick Y. Sips, Kristen M. Rauwerdink, Qingshang Yan, Robert E.T. Tainsh, Hannah R. Shakartzi, Christine Stevens, Kelly Decaluwé, Maria da Gloria Rodrigues-Machado, Rajeev Malhotra, Johan Van de Voorde, Tong Wang, Peter Brouckaert, Mark J. Daly, Kenneth D. Bloch
Aldosterone, which plays a central role in the regulation of blood pressure, is produced by zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells of the adrenal gland. When dysregulated, aldosterone is pathogenic and contributes to the development and progression of cardiovascular and renal disease. Although sustained production of aldosterone requires persistent Ca2+ entry through low-voltage activated Ca2+ channels, isolated ZG cells are considered nonexcitable, with recorded membrane voltages that are too hyperpolarized to permit Ca2+ entry. Here, we show that mouse ZG cells within adrenal slices spontaneously generate membrane potential oscillations of low periodicity. This innate electrical excitability of ZG cells provides a platform for the production of a recurrent Ca2+ signal that can be controlled by Ang II and extracellular potassium, the 2 major regulators of aldosterone production. We conclude that native ZG cells are electrical oscillators, and that this behavior provides what we believe to be a new molecular explanation for the control of Ca2+ entry in these steroidogenic cells.
Changlong Hu, Craig G. Rusin, Zhiyong Tan, Nick A. Guagliardo, Paula Q. Barrett
Localized tissue hypoxia is a consequence of vascular compromise or rapid cellular proliferation and is a potent inducer of compensatory angiogenesis. The oxygen-responsive transcriptional regulator hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α) is highly expressed in vascular ECs and, along with HIF-1α, activates expression of target genes whose products modulate vascular functions and angiogenesis. However, the mechanisms by which HIF-2α regulates EC function and tissue perfusion under physiological and pathological conditions are poorly understood. Using mice in which Hif2a was specifically deleted in ECs, we demonstrate here that HIF-2α expression is required for angiogenic responses during hindlimb ischemia and for the growth of autochthonous skin tumors. EC-specific Hif2a deletion resulted in increased vessel formation in both models; however, these vessels failed to undergo proper arteriogenesis, resulting in poor perfusion. Analysis of cultured HIF-2α–deficient ECs revealed cell-autonomous increases in migration, invasion, and morphogenetic activity, which correlated with HIF-2α–dependent expression of specific angiogenic factors, including delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4), a Notch ligand, and angiopoietin 2. By stimulating Dll4 signaling in cultured ECs or restoring Dll4 expression in ischemic muscle tissue, we rescued most of the HIF-2α–dependent EC phenotypes in vitro and in vivo, emphasizing the critical role of Dll4/Notch signaling as a downstream target of HIF-2α in ECs. These results indicate that HIF-1α and HIF-2α fulfill complementary, but largely nonoverlapping, essential functions in pathophysiological angiogenesis.
Nicolas Skuli, Amar J. Majmundar, Bryan L. Krock, Rickson C. Mesquita, Lijoy K. Mathew, Zachary L. Quinn, Anja Runge, Liping Liu, Meeri N. Kim, Jiaming Liang, Steven Schenkel, Arjun G. Yodh, Brian Keith, M. Celeste Simon