Pneumococcal infection of the respiratory tract is often secondary to recent influenza virus infection and accounts for much of the morbidity and mortality during seasonal and pandemic influenza. Here, we show that coinfection of the upper respiratory tract of mice with influenza virus and pneumococcus leads to synergistic stimulation of type I IFNs and that this impairs the recruitment of macrophages, which are required for pneumococcal clearance, due to decreased production of the chemokine CCL2. Type I IFN expression was induced by pneumococcal colonization alone. Colonization followed by influenza coinfection led to a synergistic type I IFN response, resulting in increased density of colonizing bacteria and susceptibility to invasive infection. This enhanced type I IFN response inhibited production of the chemokine CCL2, which promotes the recruitment of macrophages and bacterial clearance. Stimulation of CCL2 by macrophages upon pneumococcal infection alone required the pattern recognition receptor Nod2 and expression of the pore-forming toxin pneumolysin. Indeed, the increased colonization associated with concurrent influenza virus infection was not observed in mice lacking Nod2 or the type I IFN receptor, or in mice challenged with pneumococci lacking pneumolysin. We therefore propose that the synergistic stimulation of type I IFN production during concurrent influenza virus and pneumococcal infection leads to increased bacterial colonization and suggest that this may contribute to the higher rates of disease associated with coinfection in humans.
Shigeki Nakamura, Kimberly M. Davis, Jeffrey N. Weiser
Mycobacterium tuberculosis can cause lung tissue damage to spread, but the mechanisms driving this immunopathology are poorly understood. The breakdown of lung matrix involves MMPs, which have a unique ability to degrade fibrillar collagens at neutral pH. To determine whether MMPs play a role in the immunopathology of tuberculosis (TB), we profiled MMPs and their inhibitors, the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), in sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with TB and symptomatic controls. MMP-1 concentrations were significantly increased in both HIV-negative and HIV-positive patients with TB, while TIMP concentrations were lower in HIV-negative TB patients. In primary human monocytes, M. tuberculosis infection selectively upregulated MMP1 gene expression and secretion, and Ro32-3555, a specific MMP inhibitor, suppressed M. tuberculosis–driven MMP-1 activity. Since the mouse MMP-1 ortholog is not expressed in the lung and mice infected with M. tuberculosis do not develop tissue destruction equivalent to humans, we infected transgenic mice expressing human MMP-1 with M. tuberculosis to investigate whether MMP-1 caused lung immunopathology. In the MMP-1 transgenic mice, M. tuberculosis infection increased MMP-1 expression, resulting in alveolar destruction in lung granulomas and significantly greater collagen breakdown. In summary, MMP-1 may drive tissue destruction in TB and represents a therapeutic target to limit immunopathology.
Paul Elkington, Takayuki Shiomi, Ronan Breen, Robert K. Nuttall, Cesar Augusto Ugarte-Gil, Naomi F. Walker, Luísa Saraiva, Bernadette Pedersen, Francesco Mauri, Marc Lipman, Dylan R. Edwards, Brian D. Robertson, Jeanine D’Armiento, Jon S. Friedland
Infection with different strains of the same species of bacteria often results in vastly different clinical outcomes. Despite extensive investigation, the genetic basis of microbial strain-specific virulence remains poorly understood. Recent whole-genome sequencing has revealed that SNPs are the most prevalent form of genetic diversity among different strains of the same species of bacteria. For invasive serotype M3 group A streptococci (GAS) strains, the gene encoding regulator of proteinase B (RopB) has the highest frequency of SNPs. Here, we have determined that ropB polymorphisms alter RopB function and modulate GAS host-pathogen interactions. Sequencing of ropB in 171 invasive serotype M3 GAS strains identified 19 distinct ropB alleles. Inactivation of the ropB gene in strains producing distinct RopB variants had dramatically divergent effects on GAS global gene expression. Additionally, generation of isoallelic GAS strains differing only by a single amino acid in RopB confirmed that variant proteins affected transcript levels of the gene encoding streptococcal proteinase B, a major RopB-regulated virulence factor. Comparison of parental, RopB-inactivated, and RopB isoallelic strains in mouse infection models demonstrated that ropB polymorphisms influence GAS virulence and disease manifestations. These data detail a paradigm in which unbiased, whole-genome sequence analysis of populations of clinical bacterial isolates creates new avenues of productive investigation into the pathogenesis of common human infections.
Ronan K. Carroll, Samuel A. Shelburne III, Randall J. Olsen, Bryce Suber, Pranoti Sahasrabhojane, Muthiah Kumaraswami, Stephen B. Beres, Patrick R. Shea, Anthony R. Flores, James M. Musser
Bacteria naturally release membrane vesicles (MVs) under a variety of growth environments. Their production is associated with virulence due to their capacity to concentrate toxins and immunomodulatory molecules. In this report, we show that the 2 medically important species of mycobacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin, release MVs when growing in both liquid culture and within murine phagocytic cells in vitro and in vivo. We documented MV production in a variety of virulent and nonvirulent mycobacterial species, indicating that release of MVs is a property conserved among mycobacterial species. Extensive proteomic analysis revealed that only MVs from the virulent strains contained TLR2 lipoprotein agonists. The interaction of MVs with macrophages isolated from mice stimulated the release of cytokines and chemokines in a TLR2-dependent fashion, and infusion of MVs into mouse lungs elicited a florid inflammatory response in WT but not TLR2-deficient mice. When MVs were administered to mice before M. tuberculosis pulmonary infection, an accelerated local inflammatory response with increased bacterial replication was seen in the lungs and spleens. Our results provide strong evidence that actively released mycobacterial vesicles are a delivery mechanism for immunologically active molecules that contribute to mycobacterial virulence. These findings may open up new horizons for understanding the pathogenesis of tuberculosis and developing vaccines.
Rafael Prados-Rosales, Andres Baena, Luis R. Martinez, Jose Luque-Garcia, Rainer Kalscheuer, Usha Veeraraghavan, Carmen Camara, Joshua D. Nosanchuk, Gurdyal S. Besra, Bing Chen, Juan Jimenez, Aharona Glatman-Freedman, William R. Jacobs Jr., Steven A. Porcelli, Arturo Casadevall
Malnutrition substantially increases susceptibility to Entamoeba histolytica in children. Leptin is a hormone produced by adipocytes that inhibits food intake, influences the immune system, and is suppressed in malnourished children. Therefore we hypothesized that diminished leptin function may increase susceptibility to E. histolytica infection. We prospectively observed a cohort of children, beginning at preschool age, for infection by the parasite E. histolytica every other day over 9 years and evaluated them for genetic variants in leptin (LEP) and the leptin receptor (LEPR). We found increased susceptibility to intestinal infection by this parasite associated with an amino acid substitution in the cytokine receptor homology domain 1 of LEPR. Children carrying the allele for arginine (223R) were nearly 4 times more likely to have an infection compared with those homozygous for the ancestral glutamine allele (223Q). An association of this allele with amebic liver abscess was also determined in an independent cohort of adult patients. In addition, mice carrying at least 1 copy of the R allele of Lepr were more susceptible to infection and exhibited greater levels of mucosal destruction and intestinal epithelial apoptosis after amebic infection. These findings suggest that leptin signaling is important in mucosal defense against amebiasis and that polymorphisms in the leptin receptor explain differences in susceptibility of children in the Bangladesh cohort to amebiasis.
Priya Duggal, Xiaoti Guo, Rashidul Haque, Kristine M. Peterson, Stacy Ricklefs, Dinesh Mondal, Faisal Alam, Zannatun Noor, Hans P. Verkerke, Chelsea Marie, Charles A. Leduc, Streamson C. Chua Jr., Martin G. Myers Jr., Rudolph L. Leibel, Eric Houpt, Carol A. Gilchrist, Alan Sher, Stephen F. Porcella, William A. Petri Jr.
Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum results in approximately 1 million annual deaths worldwide, with young children and pregnant mothers at highest risk. Disease severity might be related to parasite virulence factors, but expression profiling studies of parasites to test this hypothesis have been hindered by extensive sequence variation in putative virulence genes and a preponderance of host RNA in clinical samples. We report here the application of RNA sequencing to clinical isolates of P. falciparum, using not-so-random (NSR) primers to successfully exclude human ribosomal RNA and globin transcripts and enrich for parasite transcripts. Using NSR-seq, we confirmed earlier microarray studies showing upregulation of a distinct subset of genes in parasites infecting pregnant women, including that encoding the well-established pregnancy malaria vaccine candidate var2csa. We also describe a subset of parasite transcripts that distinguished parasites infecting children from those infecting pregnant women and confirmed this observation using quantitative real-time PCR and mass spectrometry proteomic analyses. Based on their putative functional properties, we propose that these proteins could have a role in childhood malaria pathogenesis. Our study provides proof of principle that NSR-seq represents an approach that can be used to study clinical isolates of parasites causing severe malaria syndromes as well other blood-borne pathogens and blood-related diseases.
Marissa Vignali, Christopher D. Armour, Jingyang Chen, Robert Morrison, John C. Castle, Matthew C. Biery, Heather Bouzek, Wonjong Moon, Tomas Babak, Michal Fried, Christopher K. Raymond, Patrick E. Duffy
Bloodstream infection by highly antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), is a growing clinical problem that increasingly defies medical intervention. Identifying patients at high risk for bacterial sepsis remains an important clinical challenge. Recent studies have shown that antibiotics can alter microbial diversity in the intestine. Here, we characterized these effects using 16s rDNA pyrosequencing and demonstrated that antibiotic treatment of mice enabled exogenously administered VRE to efficiently and nearly completely displace the normal microbiota of the small and large intestine. In the clinical setting, we found that intestinal domination by VRE preceded bloodstream infection in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Our results demonstrate that antibiotics perturb the normal commensal microbiota and set the stage for intestinal domination by bacteria associated with hospital-acquired infections. Thus, high-throughput DNA sequencing of the intestinal microbiota could identify patients at high risk of developing bacterial sepsis.
Carles Ubeda, Ying Taur, Robert R. Jenq, Michele J. Equinda, Tammy Son, Miriam Samstein, Agnes Viale, Nicholas D. Socci, Marcel R.M. van den Brink, Mini Kamboj, Eric G. Pamer
Although adenovirus (Ad) has been regarded as an excellent vaccine vector, there are 2 major drawbacks to using this platform: (a) Ad-based vaccines induce a relatively weak humoral response against encoded transgenes, and (b) preexisting immunity to Ad is highly prevalent among the general population. To overcome these obstacles, we constructed an Ad-based malaria vaccine by inserting a B cell epitope derived from a Plasmodium yoelii circumsporozoite (CS) protein (referred to as the PyCS-B epitope) into the capsid proteins of WT/CS-GFP, a recombinant Ad expressing P. yoelii CS protein and GFP as its transgene. Multiple vaccinations with the capsid-modified Ad induced a substantially increased level of protection against subsequent malaria challenge in mice when compared with that of unmodified WT/CS-GFP. Increased protection correlated with augmented antibody responses against the PyCS-B epitope expressed in the capsid. Furthermore, replacement of hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of the Ad capsid proteins with the PyCS-B epitope circumvented neutralization of the modified Ad by preexisting Ad-specific antibody, both in vivo and in vitro. Importantly, the immunogenicity of the Ad-containing PyCS-B epitope in the HVR1 and a P. yoelii CS transgene was maintained. Overall, this study demonstrates that the HVR1-modifed Ad vastly improves upon Ad as a promising malaria vaccine platform candidate.
Takayuki Shiratsuchi, Urvashi Rai, Anja Krause, Stefan Worgall, Moriya Tsuji
In the United States, Ixodes scapularis ticks overwinter in the Northeast and Upper Midwest and transmit the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, among other pathogens. We now show that the presence of A. phagocytophilum in I. scapularis ticks increases their ability to survive in the cold. We identified an I. scapularis antifreeze glycoprotein, designated IAFGP, and demonstrated via RNAi knockdown studies the importance of IAFGP for the survival of I. scapularis ticks in a cold environment. Transfection studies also show that IAFGP increased the viability of yeast cells subjected to cold temperature. Remarkably, A. phagocytophilum induced the expression of iafgp, thereby increasing the cold tolerance and survival of I. scapularis. These data define a molecular basis for symbiosis between a human pathogenic bacterium and its arthropod vector and delineate what we believe to be a new pathway that may be targeted to alter the life cycle of this microbe and its invertebrate host.
Girish Neelakanta, Hameeda Sultana, Durland Fish, John F. Anderson, Erol Fikrig
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a recessive disease that affects multiple organs. It is caused by mutations in CFTR. Animal modeling of this disease has been challenging, with species- and strain-specific differences in organ biology and CFTR function influencing the emergence of disease pathology. Here, we report the phenotype of a CFTR-knockout ferret model of CF. Neonatal CFTR-knockout ferrets demonstrated many of the characteristics of human CF disease, including defective airway chloride transport and submucosal gland fluid secretion; variably penetrant meconium ileus (MI); pancreatic, liver, and vas deferens disease; and a predisposition to lung infection in the early postnatal period. Severe malabsorption by the gastrointestinal (GI) tract was the primary cause of death in CFTR-knockout kits that escaped MI. Elevated liver function tests in CFTR-knockout kits were corrected by oral administration of ursodeoxycholic acid, and the addition of an oral proton-pump inhibitor improved weight gain and survival. To overcome the limitations imposed by the severe intestinal phenotype, we cloned 4 gut-corrected transgenic CFTR-knockout kits that expressed ferret CFTR specifically in the intestine. One clone passed feces normally and demonstrated no detectable ferret CFTR expression in the lung or liver. The animals described in this study are likely to be useful tools for dissecting CF disease pathogenesis and developing treatments.
Xingshen Sun, Hongshu Sui, John T. Fisher, Ziying Yan, Xiaoming Liu, Hyung-Ju Cho, Nam Soo Joo, Yulong Zhang, Weihong Zhou, Yaling Yi, Joann M. Kinyon, Diana C. Lei-Butters, Michelle A. Griffin, Paul Naumann, Meihui Luo, Jill Ascher, Kai Wang, Timothy Frana, Jeffrey J. Wine, David K. Meyerholz, John F. Engelhardt
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