In chronic viral infections, CD8+ T cells become functionally deficient and display multiple molecular alterations. In contrast, only little is known of self- and tumor-specific CD8+ T cells from mice and humans. Here we determined molecular profiles of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells from melanoma patients. In peripheral blood from patients vaccinated with CpG and the melanoma antigen Melan-A/MART-1 peptide, we found functional effector T cell populations, with only small but nevertheless significant differences in T cells specific for persistent herpesviruses (EBV and CMV). In contrast, Melan-A/MART-1–specific T cells isolated from metastases from patients with melanoma expressed a large variety of genes associated with T cell exhaustion. The identified exhaustion profile revealed extended molecular alterations. Our data demonstrate a remarkable coexistence of effector cells in circulation and exhausted cells in the tumor environment. Functional T cell impairment is mediated by inhibitory receptors and further molecular pathways, which represent potential targets for cancer therapy.
Lukas Baitsch, Petra Baumgaertner, Estelle Devêvre, Sunil K. Raghav, Amandine Legat, Leticia Barba, Sébastien Wieckowski, Hanifa Bouzourene, Bart Deplancke, Pedro Romero, Nathalie Rufer, Daniel E. Speiser
Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) often suffer from food allergy and develop flares upon skin contact with food allergens. However, it is unclear whether T cells sensitized to allergens in the gut promote this skin inflammation. To address this question, we orally immunized WT mice and mice lacking the skin-homing chemokine receptor Ccr4 (Ccr4–/– mice) with OVA and then challenged them epicutaneously with antigen. Allergic skin inflammation developed in the WT mice but not in the mutants and was characterized by epidermal thickening, dermal infiltration by eosinophils and CD4+ T cells, and upregulation of Th2 cytokines. T cells purified from mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) of orally immunized WT mice transferred allergic skin inflammation to naive recipients cutaneously challenged with antigen, but this effect was lost in T cells purified from Ccr4–/– mice. In addition, the ability of adoptively transferred OVA-activated T cells to home to the skin following cutaneous OVA challenge was ablated in mice that lacked lymph nodes. These results indicate that cutaneous exposure to food antigens can reprogram gut-homing effector T cells in LNs to express skin-homing receptors, eliciting skin lesions upon food allergen contact in orally sensitized AD patients.
Michiko K. Oyoshi, Abdallah Elkhal, Jordan E. Scott, Marc-Andre Wurbel, Jason L. Hornick, James J. Campbell, Raif S. Geha
The human lung T cell compartment contains many CD8+ T cells specific for respiratory viruses, suggesting that the lung is protected from recurring respiratory infections by a resident T cell pool. The entry site for respiratory viruses is the epithelium, in which a subset of lung CD8+ T cells expressing CD103 (αE integrin) resides. Here, we determined the specificity and function of CD103+CD8+ T cells in protecting human lung against viral infection. Mononuclear cells were isolated from human blood and lung resection samples. Variable numbers of CD103+CD8+ T cells were retrieved from the lung tissue. Interestingly, expression of CD103 was seen only in lung CD8+ T cells specific for influenza but not in those specific for EBV or CMV. CD103+ and influenza-reactive cells preferentially expressed NKG2A, an inhibitor of CD8+ T cell cytotoxic function. In contrast to CD103–CD8+ T cells, most CD103+CD8+ cells did not contain perforin or granzyme B. However, they could quickly upregulate these cytotoxic mediators when exposed to a type I IFN milieu or via contact with their specific antigen. This mechanism may provide a rapid and efficient response to influenza infection, without inducing cytotoxic damage to the delicate epithelial barrier.
Berber Piet, Godelieve J. de Bree, Barbara S. Smids-Dierdorp, Chris M. van der Loos, Ester B.M. Remmerswaal, Jan H. von der Thüsen, Jan M.W. van Haarst, Jan P. Eerenberg, Anja ten Brinke, Wim van der Bij, Wim Timens, René A.W. van Lier, René E. Jonkers
The success of a non-live vaccine requires improved formulation and adjuvant selection to generate robust T cell immunity following immunization. Here, using protein linked to a TLR7/8 agonist (conjugate vaccine), we investigated the functional properties of vaccine formulation, the cytokines, and the DC subsets required to induce protective multifunctional T cell immunity in vivo. The conjugate vaccine required aggregation of the protein to elicit potent Th1 CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. Remarkably, the conjugate vaccine, through aggregation of the protein and activation of TLR7 in vivo, led to an influx of migratory DCs to the LN and increased antigen uptake by several resident and migratory DC subsets, with the latter effect strongly influenced by vaccine-induced type I IFN. Ex vivo migratory CD8–DEC205+CD103–CD326– langerin-negative dermal DCs were as potent in cross-presenting antigen to naive CD8+ T cells as CD11c+CD8+ DCs. Moreover, these cells also influenced Th1 CD4+ T cell priming. In summary, we propose a model in which broad-based T cell–mediated responses upon vaccination can be maximized by codelivery of aggregated protein and TLR7/8 agonist, which together promote optimal antigen acquisition and presentation by multiple DC subsets in the context of critical proinflammatory cytokines.
Kathrin Kastenmüller, Ulrike Wille-Reece, Ross W.B. Lindsay, Lauren R. Trager, Patricia A. Darrah, Barbara J. Flynn, Maria R. Becker, Mark C. Udey, Björn E. Clausen, Botond Z. Igyarto, Daniel H. Kaplan, Wolfgang Kastenmüller, Ronald N. Germain, Robert A. Seder
Targeted T cell immunotherapies using engineered T lymphocytes expressing tumor-directed chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are designed to benefit patients with cancer. Although incorporation of costimulatory endodomains within these CARs increases the proliferation of CAR-redirected T lymphocytes, it has proven difficult to draw definitive conclusions about the specific effects of costimulatory endodomains on the expansion, persistence, and antitumor effectiveness of CAR-redirected T cells in human subjects, owing to the lack of side-by-side comparisons with T cells bearing only a single signaling domain. We therefore designed a study that allowed us to directly measure the consequences of adding a costimulatory endodomain to CAR-redirected T cells. Patients with B cell lymphomas were simultaneously infused with 2 autologous T cell products expressing CARs with the same specificity for the CD19 antigen, present on most B cell malignancies. One CAR encoded both the costimulatory CD28 and the ζ-endodomains, while the other encoded only the ζ-endodomain. CAR+ T cells containing the CD28 endodomain showed strikingly enhanced expansion and persistence compared with CAR+ T cells lacking this endodomain. These results demonstrate the superiority of CARs with dual signal domains and confirm a method of comparing CAR-modified T cells within individual patients, thereby avoiding patient-to-patient variability and accelerating the development of optimal T cell immunotherapies.
Barbara Savoldo, Carlos Almeida Ramos, Enli Liu, Martha P. Mims, Michael J. Keating, George Carrum, Rammurti T. Kamble, Catherine M. Bollard, Adrian P. Gee, Zhuyong Mei, Hao Liu, Bambi Grilley, Cliona M. Rooney, Helen E. Heslop, Malcolm K. Brenner, Gianpietro Dotti
Mucosal antibody responses play a major role in mediating homeostasis with the intestinal flora. It has been suggested that imbalance in the IgA+ and IgG+ intestinal B cell repertoire may be associated with the development of diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. Despite this, little is known about the antibody specificity of human intestinal plasmablasts. Here, we have determined the reactivity profile of single isolated IgA+ and IgG+ plasmablasts from human terminal ileum using antibody cloning and in vitro expression. We found that approximately 25% of intestinal IgA and IgG plasmablast antibodies were polyreactive; the majority were antigen-specific. Antigen specificity was not only directed against enteropathogenic microbes but also against commensal microbes and self antigens. Regardless of their reactivity, all intestinal antibodies were somatically mutated and showed signs of antigen-mediated selection, suggesting that they developed from antigen-specific B cell responses. Together, our data indicate that antigen-specific immune responses to intestinal microbes are largely responsible for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and thus provide a basis for understanding the deregulated immune responses observed in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Julia Benckert, Nina Schmolka, Cornelia Kreschel, Markus Josef Zoller, Andreas Sturm, Bertram Wiedenmann, Hedda Wardemann
The limited success of cancer immunotherapy is often attributed to the loss of antigen-specific T cell function in situ. However, the mechanism for this loss of function is unknown. In this study, we describe a population of tumor-associated DCs (TADCs) in both human and mouse prostate cancer that tolerizes and induces suppressive activity in tumor-specific T cells. In tumors from human prostate cancer patients and transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice, TADCs expressed elevated levels of FOXO3 and Foxo3, respectively, which correlated with expression of suppressive genes that negatively regulate T cell function. Silencing FOXO3 and Foxo3 with siRNAs abrogated the ability of human and mouse TADCs, respectively, to tolerize and induce suppressive activity by T cells. Silencing Foxo3 in mouse TADCs was also associated with diminished expression of tolerogenic mediators, such as indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase, arginase, and TGF-β, and upregulated expression of costimulatory molecules and proinflammatory cytokines. Importantly, transfer of tumor-specific CD4+ Th cells into TRAMP mice abrogated TADC tolerogenicity, which was associated with reduced Foxo3 expression. These findings demonstrate that FOXO3 may play a critical role in mediating TADC-induced immune suppression. Moreover, our results identify what we believe to be a novel target for preventing CTL tolerance and enhancing immune responses to cancer by modulating the immunosuppressive activity of TADCs found in the tumor microenvironment.
Stephanie K. Watkins, Ziqiang Zhu, Elena Riboldi, Kim A. Shafer-Weaver, Katherine E.R. Stagliano, Martha M. Sklavos, Stefan Ambs, Hideo Yagita, Arthur A. Hurwitz
Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening hyperacute immediate hypersensitivity reaction. Classically, it depends on IgE, FcεRI, mast cells, and histamine. However, anaphylaxis can also be induced by IgG antibodies, and an IgG1-induced passive type of systemic anaphylaxis has been reported to depend on basophils. In addition, it was found that neither mast cells nor basophils were required in mouse models of active systemic anaphylaxis. Therefore, we investigated what antibodies, receptors, and cells are involved in active systemic anaphylaxis in mice. We found that IgG antibodies, FcγRIIIA and FcγRIV, platelet-activating factor, neutrophils, and, to a lesser extent, basophils were involved. Neutrophil activation could be monitored in vivo during anaphylaxis. Neutrophil depletion inhibited active, and also passive, systemic anaphylaxis. Importantly, mouse and human neutrophils each restored anaphylaxis in anaphylaxis-resistant mice, demonstrating that neutrophils are sufficient to induce anaphylaxis in mice and suggesting that neutrophils can contribute to anaphylaxis in humans. Our results therefore reveal an unexpected role for IgG, IgG receptors, and neutrophils in anaphylaxis in mice. These molecules and cells could be potential new targets for the development of anaphylaxis therapeutics if the same mechanism is responsible for anaphylaxis in humans.
Friederike Jönsson, David A. Mancardi, Yoshihiro Kita, Hajime Karasuyama, Bruno Iannascoli, Nico Van Rooijen, Takao Shimizu, Marc Daëron, Pierre Bruhns
Viral infections have been linked to the onset of type I diabetes (T1D), with viruses postulated to induce disease directly by causing β cell injury and subsequent release of autoantigens and indirectly via the host type I interferon (IFN-I) response triggered by the virus. Consistent with this, resistance to T1D is associated with polymorphisms that impair the function of melanoma differentiation associated gene-5 (MDA5), a sensor of viral RNA that elicits IFN-I responses. In animal models, triggering of another viral sensor, TLR3, has been implicated in diabetes. Here, we found that MDA5 and TLR3 are both required to prevent diabetes in mice infected with encephalomyocarditis virus strain D (EMCV-D), which has tropism for the insulin-producing β cells of the pancreas. Infection of Tlr3–/– mice caused diabetes due to impaired IFN-I responses and virus-induced β cell damage rather than T cell–mediated autoimmunity. Mice lacking just 1 copy of Mda5 developed transient hyperglycemia when infected with EMCV-D, whereas homozygous Mda5–/– mice developed severe cardiac pathology. TLR3 and MDA5 controlled EMCV-D infection and diabetes by acting in hematopoietic and stromal cells, respectively, inducing IFN-I responses at kinetically distinct time points. We therefore conclude that optimal functioning of viral sensors and prompt IFN-I responses are required to prevent diabetes when caused by a virus that infects and damages the β cells of the pancreas.
Stephen A. McCartney, William Vermi, Silvia Lonardi, Cristina Rossini, Karel Otero, Boris Calderon, Susan Gilfillan, Michael S. Diamond, Emil R. Unanue, Marco Colonna
Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI), whereby donor mononuclear cells are infused into patients, is one of the few effective immunotherapeutic strategies that generate long-lasting tumor remissions. We previously demonstrated that chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients treated with DLI develop high-titer plasma antibodies specific for CML-associated antigens, the majority of which have been reported to bind nucleic acids These observations led us to predict that circulating antibody-antigen complexes in DLI-responsive patients carry nucleic acids that can engage innate immune sensors. Consistent with this, we report here that post-DLI plasma from 5 CML patients that responded to DLI treatment induced massive upregulation of MIP-1α, IP-10, and IFN-α in normal blood mononuclear cells. Importantly, this was not observed with plasma obtained before DLI and from DLI nonresponders and imatinib-treated patients. This endogenous immunostimulatory activity required nucleic acid and protein for its adjuvant effect and activated antigen-presenting cells through the RNA and DNA sensors TLR8 and TLR9. Presence of the immunoglobulin Fc receptor CD32 enhanced cellular responses, suggesting that immunoglobulins associate with this activity. Finally, a TLR-induced expression signature was detectable in post-DLI but not pre-DLI blood, consistent with an active circulating TLR8/9-stimulating factor. We have therefore demonstrated that effective tumor immunity correlates with the presence of endogenous nucleic acid–immunoglobulin complexes in patient plasma, thus providing a putative mechanism for the induction of potent antigen-specific immunity against malignant cells.
Yun Lin, Li Zhang, Ann X. Cai, Mark Lee, Wandi Zhang, Donna Neuberg, Christine M. Canning, Robert J. Soiffer, Edwin P. Alyea, Jerome Ritz, Nir Hacohen, Terry K. Means, Catherine J. Wu