Review

Abstract

Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also known as sleeping sickness, is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Current therapy with melarsoprol for CNS HAT has unacceptable side-effects with an overall mortality of 5%. This review discusses the issues of diagnosis and staging of CNS disease, its neuropathogenesis, and the possibility of new therapies for treating late-stage disease.

Authors

Peter G.E. Kennedy

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Abstract

Helicobacter pylori are bacteria that have coevolved with humans to be transmitted from person to person and to persistently colonize the stomach. Their population structure is a model for the ecology of the indigenous microbiota. A well-choreographed equilibrium between bacterial effectors and host responses permits microbial persistence and health of the host but confers risk of serious diseases, including peptic ulceration and gastric neoplasia.

Authors

Martin J. Blaser, John C. Atherton

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Abstract

A set of lung diseases share the tendency for the development of progressive fibrosis ultimately leading to respiratory failure. This review examines the common pathogenetic features of these disorders in light of recent observations in both humans and animal models of disease, which reveal important pathways of lung matrix remodeling.

Authors

Harold A. Chapman

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Abstract

The anterior pituitary gland integrates the repertoire of hormonal signals controlling thyroid, adrenal, reproductive, and growth functions. The gland responds to complex central and peripheral signals by trophic hormone secretion and by undergoing reversible plastic changes in cell growth leading to hyperplasia, involution, or benign adenomas arising from functional pituitary cells. Discussed herein are the mechanisms underlying hereditary pituitary hypoplasia, reversible pituitary hyperplasia, excess hormone production, and tumor initiation and promotion associated with normal and abnormal pituitary differentiation in health and disease.

Authors

Shlomo Melmed

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Abstract

The congenital long QT syndrome is a rare disorder in which mutation carriers are at risk for polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and/or sudden cardiac death. Discovery and analysis of gene mutations associated with variants of this disorder have provided novel insight into mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia and have raised the possibility of mutation-specific therapeutic intervention.

Authors

Robert S. Kass, Arthur J. Moss

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Abstract

Sepsis remains a serious cause of morbidity and mortality, and the pathophysiology of the disease is not clear. The definition of the clinical manifestations of sepsis is ever evolving. This review discusses the search for effective therapeutic interventions, hurdles in translational sepsis research, and new therapies in development in current clinical trials.

Authors

Niels C. Riedemann, Ren-Feng Guo, Peter A. Ward

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Abstract

Authors

Daniel J. Rader, Jonathan Cohen, Helen H. Hobbs

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Abstract

Authors

Jack A. Elias, Chun Geun Lee, Tao Zheng, Bing Ma, Robert J. Homer, Zhou Zhu

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