Human NK cell deficiencies are rare yet result in severe and often fatal disease, particularly as a result of viral susceptibility. NK cells develop from hematopoietic stem cells, and few monogenic errors that specifically interrupt NK cell development have been reported. Here we have described biallelic mutations in
Emily M. Mace, Venetia Bigley, Justin T. Gunesch, Ivan K. Chinn, Laura S. Angelo, Matthew A. Care, Sheetal Maisuria, Michael D. Keller, Sumihito Togi, Levi B. Watkin, David F. LaRosa, Shalini N. Jhangiani, Donna M. Muzny, Asbjørg Stray-Pedersen, Zeynep Coban Akdemir, Jansen B. Smith, Mayra Hernández-Sanabria, Duy T. Le, Graham D. Hogg, Tram N. Cao, Aharon G. Freud, Eva P. Szymanski, Sinisa Savic, Matthew Collin, Andrew J. Cant, Richard A. Gibbs, Steven M. Holland, Michael A. Caligiuri, Keiko Ozato, Silke Paust, Gina M. Doody, James R. Lupski, Jordan S. Orange
The AXL receptor and its activating ligand, growth arrest–specific 6 (GAS6), are important drivers of metastasis and therapeutic resistance in human cancers. Given the critical roles that GAS6 and AXL play in refractory disease, this signaling axis represents an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. However, the strong picomolar binding affinity between GAS6 and AXL and the promiscuity of small molecule inhibitors represent important challenges faced by current anti-AXL therapeutics. Here, we have addressed these obstacles by engineering a second-generation, high-affinity AXL decoy receptor with an apparent affinity of 93 femtomolar to GAS6. Our decoy receptor, MYD1-72, profoundly inhibited disease progression in aggressive preclinical models of human cancers and induced cell killing in leukemia cells. When directly compared with the most advanced anti-AXL small molecules in the clinic, MYD1-72 achieved superior antitumor efficacy while displaying no toxicity. Moreover, we uncovered a relationship between AXL and the cellular response to DNA damage whereby abrogation of AXL signaling leads to accumulation of the DNA-damage markers γH2AX, 53BP1, and RAD51. MYD1-72 exploited this relationship, leading to improvements upon the therapeutic index of current standard-of-care chemotherapies in preclinical models of advanced pancreatic and ovarian cancer.
Mihalis S. Kariolis, Yu Rebecca Miao, Anh Diep, Shannon E. Nash, Monica M. Olcina, Dadi Jiang, Douglas S. Jones II, Shiven Kapur, Irimpan I. Mathews, Albert C. Koong, Erinn B. Rankin, Jennifer R. Cochran, Amato J. Giaccia
Cardiac hypertrophic growth in response to pathological cues is associated with reexpression of fetal genes and decreased cardiac function and is often a precursor to heart failure. In contrast, physiologically induced hypertrophy is adaptive, resulting in improved cardiac function. The processes that selectively induce these hypertrophic states are poorly understood. Here, we have profiled 2 repressive epigenetic marks, H3K9me2 and H3K27me3, which are involved in stable cellular differentiation, specifically in cardiomyocytes from physiologically and pathologically hypertrophied rat hearts, and correlated these marks with their associated transcriptomes. This analysis revealed the pervasive loss of euchromatic H3K9me2 as a conserved feature of pathological hypertrophy that was associated with reexpression of fetal genes. In hypertrophy, H3K9me2 was reduced following a miR-217–mediated decrease in expression of the H3K9 dimethyltransferases EHMT1 and EHMT2 (EHMT1/2). miR-217–mediated, genetic, or pharmacological inactivation of EHMT1/2 was sufficient to promote pathological hypertrophy and fetal gene reexpression, while suppression of this pathway protected against pathological hypertrophy both in vitro and in mice. Thus, we have established a conserved mechanism involving a departure of the cardiomyocyte epigenome from its adult cellular identity to a reprogrammed state that is accompanied by reexpression of fetal genes and pathological hypertrophy. These results suggest that targeting miR-217 and EHMT1/2 to prevent H3K9 methylation loss is a viable therapeutic approach for the treatment of heart disease.
Bernard Thienpont, Jan Magnus Aronsen, Emma Louise Robinson, Hanneke Okkenhaug, Elena Loche, Arianna Ferrini, Patrick Brien, Kanar Alkass, Antonio Tomasso, Asmita Agrawal, Olaf Bergmann, Ivar Sjaastad, Wolf Reik, Hywel Llewelyn Roderick
Malignant tumors develop through multiple steps of initiation and progression, and tumor initiation is of singular importance in tumor prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. However, the molecular mechanism whereby a signaling network of interacting pathways restrains proliferation in normal cells and prevents tumor initiation is still poorly understood. Here, we have reported that the Hippo, Wnt/β-catenin, and Notch pathways form an interacting network to maintain liver size and suppress hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Ablation of the mammalian Hippo kinases
Wantae Kim, Sanjoy Kumar Khan, Jelena Gvozdenovic-Jeremic, Youngeun Kim, Jason Dahlman, Hanjun Kim, Ogyi Park, Tohru Ishitani, Eek-hoon Jho, Bin Gao, Yingzi Yang
Fibrotic disease is associated with matrix deposition that results in the loss of organ function. Pericytes, the precursors of myofibroblasts, are a source of pathological matrix collagens and may be promising targets for treating fibrogenesis. Here, we have shown that pericytes activate a TLR2/4- and MyD88-dependent proinflammatory program in response to tissue injury. Similarly to classic immune cells, pericytes activate the NLRP3 inflammasome, leading to IL-1β and IL-18 secretion. Released IL-1β signals through pericyte MyD88 to amplify this response. Unexpectedly, we found that MyD88 and its downstream effector kinase IRAK4 intrinsically control pericyte migration and conversion to myofibroblasts. Specific ablation of MyD88 in pericytes or pharmacological inhibition of MyD88 signaling by an IRAK4 inhibitor in vivo protected against kidney injury by profoundly attenuating tissue injury, activation, and differentiation of myofibroblasts. Our data show that in pericytes, MyD88 and IRAK4 are key regulators of 2 major injury responses: inflammatory and fibrogenic. Moreover, these findings suggest that disruption of this MyD88-dependent pathway in pericytes might be a potential therapeutic approach to inhibit fibrogenesis and promote regeneration.
Irina A. Leaf, Shunsaku Nakagawa, Bryce G. Johnson, Jin Joo Cha, Kristen Mittelsteadt, Kevin M. Guckian, Ivan G. Gomez, William A. Altemeier, Jeremy S. Duffield
Tumor cells gain metastatic capacity through a Golgi phosphoprotein 3–dependent (GOLPH3-dependent) Golgi membrane dispersal process that drives the budding and transport of secretory vesicles. Whether Golgi dispersal underlies the pro-metastatic vesicular trafficking that is associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) remains unclear. Here, we have shown that, rather than causing Golgi dispersal, EMT led to the formation of compact Golgi organelles with improved ribbon linking and cisternal stacking. Ectopic expression of the EMT-activating transcription factor ZEB1 stimulated Golgi compaction and relieved microRNA-mediated repression of the Golgi scaffolding protein PAQR11. Depletion of PAQR11 dispersed Golgi organelles and impaired anterograde vesicle transport to the plasma membrane as well as retrograde vesicle tethering to the Golgi. The N-terminal scaffolding domain of PAQR11 was associated with key regulators of Golgi compaction and vesicle transport in pull-down assays and was required to reconstitute Golgi compaction in PAQR11-deficient tumor cells. Finally, high PAQR11 levels were correlated with EMT and shorter survival in human cancers, and PAQR11 was found to be essential for tumor cell migration and metastasis in EMT-driven lung adenocarcinoma models. We conclude that EMT initiates a PAQR11-mediated Golgi compaction process that drives metastasis.
Xiaochao Tan, Priyam Banerjee, Hou-Fu Guo, Stephen Ireland, Daniela Pankova, Young-ho Ahn, Irodotos Michail Nikolaidis, Xin Liu, Yanbin Zhao, Yongming Xue, Alan R. Burns, Jonathon Roybal, Don L. Gibbons, Tomasz Zal, Chad J. Creighton, Daniel Ungar, Yanzhuang Wang, Jonathan M. Kurie
MHC class I–associated peptides (MAPs) define the immune self for CD8+ T lymphocytes and are key targets of cancer immunosurveillance. Here, the goals of our work were to determine whether the entire set of protein-coding genes could generate MAPs and whether specific features influence the ability of discrete genes to generate MAPs. Using proteogenomics, we have identified 25,270 MAPs isolated from the B lymphocytes of 18 individuals who collectively expressed 27 high-frequency HLA-A,B allotypes. The entire MAP repertoire presented by these 27 allotypes covered only 10% of the exomic sequences expressed in B lymphocytes. Indeed, 41% of expressed protein-coding genes generated no MAPs, while 59% of genes generated up to 64 MAPs, often derived from adjacent regions and presented by different allotypes. We next identified several features of transcripts and proteins associated with efficient MAP production. From these data, we built a logistic regression model that predicts with good accuracy whether a gene generates MAPs. Our results show preferential selection of MAPs from a limited repertoire of proteins with distinctive features. The notion that the MHC class I immunopeptidome presents only a small fraction of the protein-coding genome for monitoring by the immune system has profound implications in autoimmunity and cancer immunology.
Hillary Pearson, Tariq Daouda, Diana Paola Granados, Chantal Durette, Eric Bonneil, Mathieu Courcelles, Anja Rodenbrock, Jean-Philippe Laverdure, Caroline Côté, Sylvie Mader, Sébastien Lemieux, Pierre Thibault, Claude Perreault
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) encompasses a diverse group of Mendelian disorders leading to progressive degeneration of rods and then cones. For reasons that remain unclear, diseased RP photoreceptors begin to deteriorate, eventually leading to cell death and, consequently, loss of vision. Here, we have hypothesized that RP associated with mutations in phosphodiesterase-6 (PDE6) provokes a metabolic aberration in rod cells that promotes the pathological consequences of elevated cGMP and Ca2+, which are induced by the
Lijuan Zhang, Jianhai Du, Sally Justus, Chun-Wei Hsu, Luis Bonet-Ponce, Wen-Hsuan Wu, Yi-Ting Tsai, Wei-Pu Wu, Yading Jia, Jimmy K. Duong, Vinit B. Mahajan, Chyuan-Sheng Lin, Shuang Wang, James B. Hurley, Stephen H. Tsang
Hypertension is a leading risk factor for dementia, but the mechanisms underlying its damaging effects on the brain are poorly understood. Due to a lack of energy reserves, the brain relies on continuous delivery of blood flow to its active regions in accordance with their dynamic metabolic needs. Hypertension disrupts these vital regulatory mechanisms, leading to the neuronal dysfunction and damage underlying cognitive impairment. Elucidating the cellular bases of these impairments is essential for developing new therapies. Perivascular macrophages (PVMs) represent a distinct population of resident brain macrophages that serves key homeostatic roles but also has the potential to generate large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we report that PVMs are critical in driving the alterations in neurovascular regulation and attendant cognitive impairment in mouse models of hypertension. This effect was mediated by an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability that allowed angiotensin II to enter the perivascular space and activate angiotensin type 1 receptors in PVMs, leading to production of ROS through the superoxide-producing enzyme NOX2. These findings unveil a pathogenic role of PVMs in the neurovascular and cognitive dysfunction associated with hypertension and identify these cells as a putative therapeutic target for diseases associated with cerebrovascular oxidative stress.
Giuseppe Faraco, Yukio Sugiyama, Diane Lane, Lidia Garcia Bonilla, Haejoo Chang, Monica M. Santisteban, Gianfranco Racchumi, Michelle Murphy, Nico Van Rooijen, Joseph Anrather, Costantino Iadecola
Multiple myeloma is incurable by standard approaches because of inevitable relapse and development of treatment resistance in all patients. In our prior work, we identified a panel of macropinocytosing human monoclonal antibodies against CD46, a negative regulator of the innate immune system, and constructed antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). In this report, we show that an anti-CD46 ADC (CD46-ADC) potently inhibited proliferation in myeloma cell lines with little effect on normal cells. CD46-ADC also potently eliminated myeloma growth in orthometastatic xenograft models. In primary myeloma cells derived from bone marrow aspirates, CD46-ADC induced apoptosis and cell death, but did not affect the viability of nontumor mononuclear cells. It is of clinical interest that the
Daniel W. Sherbenou, Blake T. Aftab, Yang Su, Christopher R. Behrens, Arun Wiita, Aaron C. Logan, Diego Acosta-Alvear, Byron C. Hann, Peter Walter, Marc A. Shuman, Xiaobo Wu, John P. Atkinson, Jeffrey L. Wolf, Thomas G. Martin, Bin Liu
Chronic inflammation in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) precipitates the development of cardiometabolic disorders. Although changes in T cell function associated with visceral obesity are thought to affect chronic VAT inflammation, the specific features of these changes remain elusive. Here, we have determined that a high-fat diet (HFD) caused a preferential increase and accumulation of CD44hiCD62LloCD4+ T cells that constitutively express PD-1 and CD153 in a B cell–dependent manner in VAT. These cells possessed characteristics of cellular senescence and showed a strong activation of
Kohsuke Shirakawa, Xiaoxiang Yan, Ken Shinmura, Jin Endo, Masaharu Kataoka, Yoshinori Katsumata, Tsunehisa Yamamoto, Atsushi Anzai, Sarasa Isobe, Naohiro Yoshida, Hiroshi Itoh, Ichiro Manabe, Miho Sekai, Yoko Hamazaki, Keiichi Fukuda, Nagahiro Minato, Motoaki Sano
Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that form ribonucleoproteins to guide covalent modifications of ribosomal and small nuclear RNAs in the nucleus. Recent studies have also uncovered additional non-canonical roles for snoRNAs. However, the physiological contributions of these small RNAs are largely unknown. Here, we selectively deleted four snoRNAs encoded within the introns of the ribosomal protein L13a (
Jiyeon Lee, Alexis N. Harris, Christopher L. Holley, Jana Mahadevan, Kelly D. Pyles, Zeno Lavagnino, David E. Scherrer, Hideji Fujiwara, Rohini Sidhu, Jessie Zhang, Stanley Ching-Cheng Huang, David W. Piston, Maria S. Remedi, Fumihiko Urano, Daniel S. Ory, Jean E. Schaffer
The transcription factor NR4A3 (also known as NOR-1) is a member of the
Kiwon Park, Zbigniew Mikulski, Goo-Young Seo, Aleksander Y. Andreyev, Paola Marcovecchio, Amy Blatchley, Mitchell Kronenberg, Catherine C. Hedrick
Mutations and deletions in components of ubiquitin ligase complexes that lead to alterations in protein turnover are important mechanisms in driving tumorigenesis. Here we describe an alternative mechanism involving upregulation of the microRNA miR-424 that leads to impaired ubiquitination and degradation of oncogenic transcription factors in prostate cancers. We found that miR-424 targets the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1 and identified STAT3 as a key substrate of COP1 in promoting tumorigenic and cancer stem-like properties in prostate epithelial cells. Altered protein turnover due to impaired COP1 function led to accumulation and enhanced basal and cytokine-induced activity of STAT3. We further determined that loss of the ETS factor ESE3/EHF is the initial event that triggers the deregulation of the miR-424/COP1/STAT3 axis. COP1 silencing and STAT3 activation were effectively reverted by blocking of miR-424, suggesting a possible strategy to attack this key node of tumorigenesis in ESE3/EHF–deficient tumors. These results establish miR-424 as an oncogenic effector linked to noncanonical activation of STAT3 and as a potential therapeutic target.
Cecilia Dallavalle, Domenico Albino, Gianluca Civenni, Jessica Merulla, Paola Ostano, Maurizia Mello-Grand, Simona Rossi, Marco Losa, Gioacchino D’Ambrosio, Fausto Sessa, George N. Thalmann, Ramon Garcia-Escudero, Andrea Zitella, Giovanna Chiorino, Carlo V. Catapano, Giuseppina M. Carbone
Epidermal keratinocytes form a structural and immune barrier that is essential for skin homeostasis. However, the mechanisms that regulate epidermal barrier function are incompletely understood. Here we have found that keratinocyte-specific deletion of the gene encoding RAB guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (RABGEF1, also known as RABEX-5) severely impairs epidermal barrier function in mice and induces an allergic cutaneous and systemic phenotype. RABGEF1-deficient keratinocytes exhibited aberrant activation of the intrinsic IL-1R/MYD88/NF-κB signaling pathway and MYD88-dependent abnormalities in expression of structural proteins that contribute to skin barrier function. Moreover, ablation of MYD88 signaling in RABGEF1-deficient keratinocytes or deletion of
Thomas Marichal, Nicolas Gaudenzio, Sophie El Abbas, Riccardo Sibilano, Oliwia Zurek, Philipp Starkl, Laurent L. Reber, Dimitri Pirottin, Jinah Kim, Pierre Chambon, Axel Roers, Nadine Antoine, Yuko Kawakami, Toshiaki Kawakami, Fabrice Bureau, See-Ying Tam, Mindy Tsai, Stephen J. Galli
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) reside in the bone marrow. Stress signals from cancer and other conditions promote HSPC mobilization into circulation and subsequent homing to tissue microenvironments. HSPC infiltration into tissue microenvironments can influence disease progression; notably, in cancer, HSPCs encourage tumor growth. Here we have uncovered a mutually exclusive distribution of EPHB4 receptors in bone marrow sinusoids and ephrin B2 ligands in hematopoietic cells. We determined that signaling interactions between EPHB4 and ephrin B2 control HSPC mobilization from the bone marrow. In mice, blockade of the EPHB4/ephrin B2 signaling pathway reduced mobilization of HSPCs and other myeloid cells to the circulation. EPHB4/ephrin B2 blockade also reduced HSPC infiltration into tumors as well as tumor progression in murine models of melanoma and mammary cancer. These results identify EPHB4/ephrin B2 signaling as critical to HSPC mobilization from bone marrow and provide a potential strategy for reducing cancer progression by targeting the bone marrow.
Hyeongil Kwak, Ombretta Salvucci, Roberto Weigert, Jorge L. Martinez-Torrecuadrada, Mark Henkemeyer, Michael G. Poulos, Jason M. Butler, Giovanna Tosato
Arterial blood pressure is controlled by vasodilatory factors such as nitric oxide (NO) that are released from the endothelium under the influence of fluid shear stress exerted by flowing blood. Flow-induced endothelial release of ATP and subsequent activation of Gq/G11–coupled purinergic P2Y2 receptors have been shown to mediate fluid shear stress–induced stimulation of NO formation. However, the mechanism by which fluid shear stress initiates these processes is unclear. Here, we have shown that the endothelial mechanosensitive cation channel PIEZO1 is required for flow-induced ATP release and subsequent P2Y2/Gq/G11–mediated activation of downstream signaling that results in phosphorylation and activation of AKT and endothelial NOS. We also demonstrated that PIEZO1-dependent ATP release is mediated in part by pannexin channels. The PIEZO1 activator Yoda1 mimicked the effect of fluid shear stress on endothelial cells and induced vasorelaxation in a PIEZO1-dependent manner. Furthermore, mice with induced endothelium-specific PIEZO1 deficiency lost the ability to induce NO formation and vasodilation in response to flow and consequently developed hypertension. Together, our data demonstrate that PIEZO1 is required for the regulation of NO formation, vascular tone, and blood pressure.
ShengPeng Wang, Ramesh Chennupati, Harmandeep Kaur, Andras Iring, Nina Wettschureck, Stefan Offermanns
Certain secretory proteins are known to be critical for maintaining the stemness of stem cells through autocrine signaling. However, the processes underlying the biogenesis, maturation, and secretion of these proteins remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that many secretory proteins produced by hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) undergo exosomal maturation and release that is controlled by vacuolar protein sorting protein 33b (VPS33B). Deletion of
Hao Gu, Chiqi Chen, Xiaoxin Hao, Conghui Wang, Xiaocui Zhang, Zhen Li, Hongfang Shao, Hongxiang Zeng, Zhuo Yu, Li Xie, Fangzhen Xia, Feifei Zhang, Xiaoye Liu, Yaping Zhang, Haishan Jiang, Jun Zhu, Jiangbo Wan, Chun Wang, Wei Weng, Jingjing Xie, Minfang Tao, Cheng Cheng Zhang, Junling Liu, Guo-Qiang Chen, Junke Zheng
Neuronal oscillations at beta frequencies (20–50 Hz) in the cortico-basal ganglia circuits have long been the leading theory for bradykinesia, the slow movements that are cardinal symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD). The beta oscillation theory helped to drive a frequency-based design in the development of deep brain stimulation therapy for PD. However, in contrast to this theory, here we have found that bradykinesia can be completely dissociated from beta oscillations in rodent models. Instead, we observed that bradykinesia is causatively regulated by the burst-firing pattern of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in a feed-forward, or efferent-only, mechanism. Furthermore, STN burst-firing and beta oscillations are two independent mechanisms that are regulated by different NMDA receptors in STN. Our results shift the understanding of bradykinesia pathophysiology from an interactive oscillatory theory toward a feed-forward mechanism that is coded by firing patterns. This distinct mechanism may improve understanding of the fundamental concepts of motor control and enable more selective targeting of bradykinesia-specific mechanisms to improve PD therapy.
Ming-Kai Pan, Sheng-Han Kuo, Chun-Hwei Tai, Jyun-You Liou, Ju-Chun Pei, Chia-Yuan Chang, Yi-Mei Wang, Wen-Chuan Liu, Tien-Rei Wang, Wen-Sung Lai, Chung-Chin Kuo
Current chemotherapies for T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) efficiently reduce tumor mass. Nonetheless, disease relapse attributed to survival of preleukemic stem cells (pre-LSCs) is associated with poor prognosis. Herein, we provide direct evidence that pre-LSCs are much less chemosensitive to existing chemotherapy drugs than leukemic blasts because of a distinctive lower proliferative state. Improving therapies for T-ALL requires the development of strategies to target pre-LSCs that are absolutely dependent on their microenvironment. Therefore, we designed a robust protocol for high-throughput screening of compounds that target primary pre-LSCs maintained in a niche-like environment, on stromal cells that were engineered for optimal NOTCH1 activation. The multiparametric readout takes into account the intrinsic complexity of primary cells in order to specifically monitor pre-LSCs, which were induced here by the
Bastien Gerby, Diogo F.T. Veiga, Jana Krosl, Sami Nourreddine, Julianne Ouellette, André Haman, Geneviève Lavoie, Iman Fares, Mathieu Tremblay, Véronique Litalien, Elizabeth Ottoni, Milena Kosic, Dominique Geoffrion, Joël Ryan, Paul S. Maddox, Jalila Chagraoui, Anne Marinier, Josée Hébert, Guy Sauvageau, Benjamin H. Kwok, Philippe P. Roux, Trang Hoang