Renal tubulointerstitial injury is characterized by inflammatory cell infiltrate; however, the stimuli for leukocyte recruitment are not fully understood. IL-8 is a potent chemokine produced by proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs). Whether nephrotic proteins stimulate tubular IL-8 expression remains unknown. Acute exposure of human PTECs to albumin induced IL-8 gene and protein expression time- and dose-dependently. Apical albumin predominantly stimulated basolateral IL-8 secretion. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated nuclear translocation of NF-κB, and the p65/p50 subunits were activated. NF-κB activation and IL-8 secretion were attenuated by the NF-κB inhibitors pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and cell-permeable peptide. Albumin upregulated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, while exogenous H2O2 stimulated NF-κB translocation and IL-8 secretion. Albumin-induced ROS generation, NF-κB activation, and IL-8 secretion were endocytosis- and PKC-dependent as these downstream events were abrogated by the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin, and the PKC inhibitors GF109203X and staurosporin, respectively. In vivo, IL-8 mRNA expression was localized by in situ hybridization to the proximal tubules in nephrotic kidney tissues. The intensity of IL-8 immunostaining was higher in nephrotic than non-nephrotic subjects. In conclusion, albumin is a strong stimulus for tubular IL-8 expression, which occurs via NF-κB–dependent pathways through PKC activation and ROS generation.
Sydney Tang, Joseph C.K. Leung, Katsushige Abe, Kwok Wah Chan, Loretta Y.Y. Chan, Tak Mao Chan, Kar Neng Lai
Junwei Yang, Ryan W. Shultz, Wendy M. Mars, Rodney E. Wegner, Yingjian Li, Chunsun Dai, Kari Nejak, Youhua Liu
Peer Wulff, Volker Vallon, Dan Yang Huang, Harald Völkl, Fang Yu, Kerstin Richter, Martina Jansen, Michaela Schlünz, Karin Klingel, Johannes Loffing, Gunther Kauselmann, Michael R. Bösl, Florian Lang, Dietmar Kuhl