miRNAs are important regulators of biological processes in many tissues, including the differentiation and function of brown and white adipocytes. The endoribonuclease dicer is a major component of the miRNA-processing pathway, and in adipose tissue, levels of dicer have been shown to decrease with age, increase with caloric restriction, and influence stress resistance. Here, we demonstrated that mice with a fat-specific KO of dicer develop a form of lipodystrophy that is characterized by loss of intra-abdominal and subcutaneous white fat, severe insulin resistance, and enlargement and “whitening” of interscapular brown fat. Additionally, KO of dicer in cultured brown preadipocytes promoted a white adipocyte–like phenotype and reduced expression of several miRNAs. Brown preadipocyte whitening was partially reversed by expression of miR-365, a miRNA known to promote brown fat differentiation; however, introduction of other miRNAs, including miR-346 and miR-362, also contributed to reversal of the loss of the dicer phenotype. Interestingly, fat samples from patients with HIV-related lipodystrophy exhibited a substantial downregulation of dicer mRNA expression. Together, these findings indicate the importance of miRNA processing in white and brown adipose tissue determination and provide a potential link between this process and HIV-related lipodystrophy.
Marcelo A. Mori, Thomas Thomou, Jeremie Boucher, Kevin Y. Lee, Susanna Lallukka, Jason K. Kim, Martin Torriani, Hannele Yki-Järvinen, Steven K. Grinspoon, Aaron M. Cypess, C. Ronald Kahn
Metabolic disorders, including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, are widespread in Westernized nations. Gut microbiota composition is a contributing factor to the susceptibility of an individual to the development of these disorders; therefore, altering a person’s microbiota may ameliorate disease. One potential microbiome-altering strategy is the incorporation of modified bacteria that express therapeutic factors into the gut microbiota. For example,
Zhongyi Chen, Lilu Guo, Yongqin Zhang, Rosemary L. Walzem, Julie S. Pendergast, Richard L. Printz, Lindsey C. Morris, Elena Matafonova, Xavier Stien, Li Kang, Denis Coulon, Owen P. McGuinness, Kevin D. Niswender, Sean S. Davies
The neuropeptide kisspeptin regulates reproduction by stimulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons via the kisspeptin receptor KISS1R. In addition to GnRH neurons, KISS1R is expressed in other brain areas and peripheral tissues, which suggests that kisspeptin has additional functions beyond reproduction. Here, we studied the energetic and metabolic phenotype in mice lacking kisspeptin signaling (
Kristen P. Tolson, Christian Garcia, Stephanie Yen, Stephanie Simonds, Aneta Stefanidis, Alison Lawrence, Jeremy T. Smith, Alexander S. Kauffman
Glucose control and weight loss are cornerstones of type 2 diabetes treatment. Currently, only glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) analogs are able to achieve both weight loss and glucose tolerance. Both glucose and body weight are regulated by the brain, which contains GLP1 receptors (GLP1R). Even though the brain is poised to mediate the effects of GLP1 analogs, it remains unclear whether the glucose- and body weight–lowering effects of long-acting GLP1R agonists are via direct action on CNS GLP1R or the result of downstream activation of afferent neuronal GLP1R. We generated mice with either neuronal or visceral nerve-specific deletion of
Stephanie Sisley, Ruth Gutierrez-Aguilar, Michael Scott, David A. D’Alessio, Darleen A. Sandoval, Randy J. Seeley
The majority of mammalian cells have nonmotile primary cilia on their surface that act as antenna-like sensory organelles. Genetic defects that result in ciliary dysfunction are associated with obesity in humans and rodents, which suggests that functional cilia are important for controlling energy balance. Here we demonstrated that neuronal cilia lengths were selectively reduced in hypothalami of obese mice with leptin deficiency and leptin resistance. Treatment of N1 hypothalamic neuron cells with leptin stimulated cilia assembly via inhibition of the tumor suppressors PTEN and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). Induction of short cilia in the hypothalamus of adult mice increased food intake and decreased energy expenditure, leading to a positive energy balance. Moreover, mice with short hypothalamic cilia exhibited attenuated anorectic responses to leptin, insulin, and glucose, which indicates that leptin-induced cilia assembly is essential for sensing these satiety signals by hypothalamic neurons. These data suggest that leptin governs the sensitivity of hypothalamic neurons to metabolic signals by controlling the length of the cell’s antenna.
Yu Mi Han, Gil Myoung Kang, Kyunghee Byun, Hyuk Wan Ko, Joon Kim, Mi-Seon Shin, Hyun-Kyong Kim, So Young Gil, Ji Hee Yu, Bonghee Lee, Min-Seon Kim
The nuclear bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is an important transcriptional regulator of bile acid, lipid, and glucose metabolism. FXR is highly expressed in the liver and intestine and controls the synthesis and enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. However, little is known about FXR-associated proteins that contribute to metabolic regulation. Here, we performed a mass spectrometry–based search for FXR-interacting proteins in human hepatoma cells and identified AMPK as a coregulator of FXR. FXR interacted with the nutrient-sensitive kinase AMPK in the cytoplasm of target cells and was phosphorylated in its hinge domain. In cultured human and murine hepatocytes and enterocytes, pharmacological activation of AMPK inhibited FXR transcriptional activity and prevented FXR coactivator recruitment to promoters of FXR-regulated genes. Furthermore, treatment with AMPK activators, including the antidiabetic biguanide metformin, inhibited FXR agonist induction of FXR target genes in mouse liver and intestine. In a mouse model of intrahepatic cholestasis, metformin treatment induced FXR phosphorylation, perturbed bile acid homeostasis, and worsened liver injury. Together, our data indicate that AMPK directly phosphorylates and regulates FXR transcriptional activity to precipitate liver injury under conditions favoring cholestasis.
Fleur Lien, Alexandre Berthier, Emmanuel Bouchaert, Céline Gheeraert, Jeremy Alexandre, Geoffrey Porez, Janne Prawitt, Hélène Dehondt, Maheul Ploton, Sophie Colin, Anthony Lucas, Alexandre Patrice, François Pattou, Hélène Diemer, Alain Van Dorsselaer, Christophe Rachez, Jelena Kamilic, Albert K. Groen, Bart Staels, Philippe Lefebvre
Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) occur at a frequency of 1 in every 5,000 live births and are a common cause of pediatric neurodegenerative disease. The relatively small number of patients with LSDs and lack of validated biomarkers are substantial challenges for clinical trial design. Here, we evaluated the use of a commercially available fluorescent probe, Lysotracker, that can be used to measure the relative acidic compartment volume of circulating B cells as a potentially universal biomarker for LSDs. We validated this metric in a mouse model of the LSD Niemann-Pick type C1 disease (NPC1) and in a prospective 5-year international study of NPC patients. Pediatric NPC subjects had elevated acidic compartment volume that correlated with age-adjusted clinical severity and was reduced in response to therapy with miglustat, a European Medicines Agency–approved drug that has been shown to reduce NPC1-associated neuropathology. Measurement of relative acidic compartment volume was also useful for monitoring therapeutic responses of an NPC2 patient after bone marrow transplantation. Furthermore, this metric identified a potential adverse event in NPC1 patients receiving i.v. cyclodextrin therapy. Our data indicate that relative acidic compartment volume may be a useful biomarker to aid diagnosis, clinical monitoring, and evaluation of therapeutic responses in patients with lysosomal disorders.
Danielle te Vruchte, Anneliese O. Speak, Kerri L. Wallom, Nada Al Eisa, David A. Smith, Christian J. Hendriksz, Louise Simmons, Robin H. Lachmann, Alison Cousins, Ralf Hartung, Eugen Mengel, Heiko Runz, Michael Beck, Yasmina Amraoui, Jackie Imrie, Elizabeth Jacklin, Kate Riddick, Nicole M. Yanjanin, Christopher A. Wassif, Arndt Rolfs, Florian Rimmele, Naomi Wright, Clare Taylor, Uma Ramaswami, Timothy M. Cox, Caroline Hastings, Xuntian Jiang, Rohini Sidhu, Daniel S. Ory, Begona Arias, Mylvaganam Jeyakumar, Daniel J. Sillence, James E. Wraith, Forbes D. Porter, Mario Cortina-Borja, Frances M. Platt
Chronic hyperglycemia impairs insulin action, resulting in glucotoxicity, which can be ameliorated in animal models by inducing glucosuria with renal glucose transport inhibitors. Here, we examined whether reduction of plasma glucose with a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor could improve insulin-mediated tissue glucose disposal in patients with type 2 diabetes. Eighteen diabetic men were randomized to receive either dapagliflozin (
Aurora Merovci, Carolina Solis-Herrera, Giuseppe Daniele, Roy Eldor, Teresa Vanessa Fiorentino, Devjit Tripathy, Juan Xiong, Zandra Perez, Luke Norton, Muhammad A. Abdul-Ghani, Ralph A. DeFronzo
Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), an important regulator of energy metabolism and lipid oxidation, is induced in fasted liver mitochondria and implicated in metabolic syndrome. In fasted liver, SIRT3-mediated increases in substrate flux depend on oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), but precisely how OXPHOS meets the challenge of increased substrate oxidation in fasted liver remains unclear. Here, we show that liver mitochondria in fasting mice adapt to the demand of increased substrate oxidation by increasing their OXPHOS efficiency. In response to cAMP signaling, SIRT3 deacetylated and activated leucine-rich protein 130 (LRP130; official symbol, LRPPRC), promoting a mitochondrial transcriptional program that enhanced hepatic OXPHOS. Using mass spectrometry, we identified SIRT3-regulated lysine residues in LRP130 that generated a lysine-to-arginine (KR) mutant of LRP130 that mimics deacetylated protein. Compared with wild-type LRP130 protein, expression of the KR mutant increased mitochondrial transcription and OXPHOS in vitro. Indeed, even when SIRT3 activity was abolished, activation of mitochondrial transcription and OXPHOS by the KR mutant remained robust, further highlighting the contribution of LRP130 deacetylation to increased OXPHOS in fasted liver. These data establish a link between nutrient sensing and mitochondrial transcription that regulates OXPHOS in fasted liver and may explain how fasted liver adapts to increased substrate oxidation.
Lijun Liu, Minwoo Nam, Wei Fan, Thomas E. Akie, David C. Hoaglin, Guangping Gao, John F. Keaney Jr., Marcus P. Cooper
Children with focal hyperinsulinism of infancy display a dramatic, non-neoplastic clonal expansion of β cells that have undergone mitotic recombination, resulting in paternal disomy of part of chromosome 11. This disomic region contains imprinted genes, including the gene encoding the cell cycle inhibitor p57Kip2 (
Dana Avrahami, Changhong Li, Ming Yu, Yang Jiao, Jia Zhang, Ali Naji, Seyed Ziaie, Benjamin Glaser, Klaus H. Kaestner
The hormone FGF21 regulates carbohydrate and lipid homeostasis as well as body weight, and increasing FGF21 improves metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity and diabetes. FGF21 is thought to act on its target tissues, including liver and adipose tissue, to improve insulin sensitivity and reduce adiposity. Here, we used mice with selective hepatic inactivation of the IR (LIRKO) to determine whether insulin sensitization in liver mediates FGF21 metabolic actions. Remarkably, hyperglycemia was completely normalized following FGF21 treatment in LIRKO mice, even though FGF21 did not reduce gluconeogenesis in these animals. Improvements in blood sugar were due in part to increased glucose uptake in brown fat, browning of white fat, and overall increased energy expenditure. These effects were preserved even after removal of the main interscapular brown fat pad. In contrast to its retained effects on reducing glucose levels, the effects of FGF21 on reducing circulating cholesterol and hepatic triglycerides and regulating the expression of key genes involved in cholesterol and lipid metabolism in liver were disrupted in LIRKO mice. Thus, FGF21 corrects hyperglycemia in diabetic mice independently of insulin action in the liver by increasing energy metabolism via activation of brown fat and browning of white fat, but intact liver insulin action is required for FGF21 to control hepatic lipid metabolism.
Brice Emanuelli, Sara G. Vienberg, Graham Smyth, Christine Cheng, Kristin I. Stanford, Manimozhiyan Arumugam, Mervyn D. Michael, Andrew C. Adams, Alexei Kharitonenkov, C. Ronald Kahn
How glucose sensing by the nervous system impacts the regulation of β cell mass and function during postnatal development and throughout adulthood is incompletely understood. Here, we studied mice with inactivation of glucose transporter 2 (
David Tarussio, Salima Metref, Pascal Seyer, Lourdes Mounien, David Vallois, Christophe Magnan, Marc Foretz, Bernard Thorens
Energy and glucose homeostasis are regulated by central serotonin 2C receptors. These receptors are attractive pharmacological targets for the treatment of obesity; however, the identity of the serotonin 2C receptor–expressing neurons that mediate the effects of serotonin and serotonin 2C receptor agonists on energy and glucose homeostasis are unknown. Here, we show that mice lacking serotonin 2C receptors (
Eric D. Berglund, Chen Liu, Jong-Woo Sohn, Tiemin Liu, Mi Hwa Kim, Charlotte E. Lee, Claudia R. Vianna, Kevin W. Williams, Yong Xu, Joel K. Elmquist
Diabetic microvascular complications have been considered to be mediated by a glucose-driven increase in mitochondrial superoxide anion production. Here, we report that superoxide production was reduced in the kidneys of a steptozotocin-induced mouse model of type 1 diabetes, as assessed by in vivo real-time transcutaneous fluorescence, confocal microscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance analysis. Reduction of mitochondrial biogenesis and phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) were observed in kidneys from diabetic mice. These observations were consistent with an overall reduction of mitochondrial glucose oxidation. Activity of AMPK, the major energy-sensing enzyme, was reduced in kidneys from both diabetic mice and humans. Mitochondrial biogenesis, PDH activity, and mitochondrial complex activity were rescued by treatment with the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR). AICAR treatment induced superoxide production and was linked with glomerular matrix and albuminuria reduction in the diabetic kidney. Furthermore, diabetic heterozygous superoxide dismutase 2 (
Laura L. Dugan, Young-Hyun You, Sameh S. Ali, Maggie Diamond-Stanic, Satoshi Miyamoto, Anne-Emilie DeCleves, Aleksander Andreyev, Tammy Quach, San Ly, Grigory Shekhtman, William Nguyen, Andre Chepetan, Thuy P. Le, Lin Wang, Ming Xu, Kacie P. Paik, Agnes Fogo, Benoit Viollet, Anne Murphy, Frank Brosius, Robert K. Naviaux, Kumar Sharma
Inadequate functional β cell mass underlies both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. β Cell growth and regeneration also decrease with age through mechanisms that are not fully understood. Age-dependent loss of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) prevents adult β cell replication through derepression of the gene encoding cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2a (
Josie X. Zhou, Sangeeta Dhawan, Hualin Fu, Emily Snyder, Rita Bottino, Sharmistha Kundu, Seung K. Kim, Anil Bhushan
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction in classical target tissues such as muscle, fat, and liver. Using a murine model of type 2 diabetes, we show that there is hypothalamic insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction due to downregulation of the mitochondrial chaperone HSP60. HSP60 reduction in obese, diabetic mice was due to a lack of proper leptin signaling and was restored by leptin treatment. Knockdown of
André Kleinridders, Hans P.M.M. Lauritzen, Siegfried Ussar, Jane H. Christensen, Marcelo A. Mori, Peter Bross, C. Ronald Kahn
Insulin-independent glucose disposal (referred to as glucose effectiveness [GE]) is crucial for glucose homeostasis and, until recently, was thought to be invariable. However, GE is reduced in type 2 diabetes and markedly decreased in leptin-deficient
Gregory J. Morton, Miles E. Matsen, Deanna P. Bracy, Thomas H. Meek, Hong T. Nguyen, Darko Stefanovski, Richard N. Bergman, David H. Wasserman, Michael W. Schwartz
Recent genome-wide association studies demonstrated that common variants of solute carrier family 30 member 8 gene (
Motoyuki Tamaki, Yoshio Fujitani, Akemi Hara, Toyoyoshi Uchida, Yoshifumi Tamura, Kageumi Takeno, Minako Kawaguchi, Takahiro Watanabe, Takeshi Ogihara, Ayako Fukunaka, Tomoaki Shimizu, Tomoya Mita, Akio Kanazawa, Mica O. Imaizumi, Takaya Abe, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Shintaro Hojyo, Toshiyuki Fukada, Takeshi Kawauchi, Shinya Nagamatsu, Toshio Hirano, Ryuzo Kawamori, Hirotaka Watada
Circulating pancreatic glucagon is increased during fasting and maintains glucose balance by stimulating hepatic gluconeogenesis. Glucagon triggering of the cAMP pathway upregulates the gluconeogenic program through the phosphorylation of cAMP response element–binding protein (CREB) and the dephosphorylation of the CREB coactivator CRTC2. Hormonal and nutrient signals are also thought to modulate gluconeogenic gene expression by promoting epigenetic changes that facilitate assembly of the transcriptional machinery. However, the nature of these modifications is unclear. Using mouse models and in vitro assays, we show that histone H3 acetylation at Lys 9 (H3K9Ac) was elevated over gluconeogenic genes and contributed to increased hepatic glucose production during fasting and in diabetes. Dephosphorylation of CRTC2 promoted increased H3K9Ac through recruitment of the lysine acetyltransferase 2B (KAT2B) and WD repeat–containing protein 5 (WDR5), a core subunit of histone methyltransferase (HMT) complexes. KAT2B and WDR5 stimulated the gluconeogenic program through a self-reinforcing cycle, whereby increases in H3K9Ac further potentiated CRTC2 occupancy at CREB binding sites. Depletion of KAT2B or WDR5 decreased gluconeogenic gene expression, consequently breaking the cycle. Administration of a small-molecule KAT2B antagonist lowered circulating blood glucose concentrations in insulin resistance, suggesting that this enzyme may be a useful target for diabetes treatment.
Kim Ravnskjaer, Meghan F. Hogan, Denise Lackey, Laszlo Tora, Sharon Y.R. Dent, Jerrold Olefsky, Marc Montminy
Improvements in metabolite-profiling techniques are providing increased breadth of coverage of the human metabolome and may highlight biomarkers and pathways in common diseases such as diabetes. Using a metabolomics platform that analyzes intermediary organic acids, purines, pyrimidines, and other compounds, we performed a nested case-control study of 188 individuals who developed diabetes and 188 propensity-matched controls from 2,422 normoglycemic participants followed for 12 years in the Framingham Heart Study. The metabolite 2-aminoadipic acid (2-AAA) was most strongly associated with the risk of developing diabetes. Individuals with 2-AAA concentrations in the top quartile had greater than a 4-fold risk of developing diabetes. Levels of 2-AAA were not well correlated with other metabolite biomarkers of diabetes, such as branched chain amino acids and aromatic amino acids, suggesting they report on a distinct pathophysiological pathway. In experimental studies, administration of 2-AAA lowered fasting plasma glucose levels in mice fed both standard chow and high-fat diets. Further, 2-AAA treatment enhanced insulin secretion from a pancreatic β cell line as well as murine and human islets. These data highlight a metabolite not previously associated with diabetes risk that is increased up to 12 years before the onset of overt disease. Our findings suggest that 2-AAA is a marker of diabetes risk and a potential modulator of glucose homeostasis in humans.
Thomas J. Wang, Debby Ngo, Nikolaos Psychogios, Andre Dejam, Martin G. Larson, Ramachandran S. Vasan, Anahita Ghorbani, John O’Sullivan, Susan Cheng, Eugene P. Rhee, Sumita Sinha, Elizabeth McCabe, Caroline S. Fox, Christopher J. O’Donnell, Jennifer E. Ho, Jose C. Florez, Martin Magnusson, Kerry A. Pierce, Amanda L. Souza, Yi Yu, Christian Carter, Peter E. Light, Olle Melander, Clary B. Clish, Robert E. Gerszten