Current therapies to treat autoimmune disease focus mainly on downstream targets of autoimmune responses, including effector cells and cytokines. A potentially more effective approach would entail targeting autoreactive T cells that initiate the disease cascade and break self tolerance. The murine MHC class Ib molecule Qa-1b (HLA-E in humans) exhibits limited polymorphisms and binds to 2 dominant self peptides: Hsp60p216 and Qdm. We found that peptide-induced expansion of tetramer-binding CD8+ Tregs that recognize Qa-1–Hsp60p216 but not Qa-1–Qdm strongly inhibited collagen-induced arthritis, an animal model of human rheumatoid arthritis. Perforin-dependent elimination of autoreactive follicular Th (TFH) and Th17 cells by CD8+ Tregs inhibited disease development. Infusion of in vitro–expanded CD8+ Tregs increased the efficacy of methotrexate treatment and halted disease progression after clinical onset, suggesting an alternative approach to this first-line treatment. Moreover, infusion of small numbers of Qa-1–Hsp60p216–specific CD8+ Tregs resulted in robust inhibition of autoimmune arthritis, confirming the inhibitory effects of Hsp60p216 peptide immunization. These results suggest that strategies designed to expand Qa-1–restricted (HLA-E–restricted), peptide-specific CD8+ Tregs represent a promising therapeutic approach to autoimmune disorders.
Jianmei W. Leavenworth, Xiaolei Tang, Hye-Jung Kim, Xiaoyang Wang, Harvey Cantor
Milk fat globule-EGF 8 (MFGE8) plays important, nonredundant roles in several biological processes, including apoptotic cell clearance, angiogenesis, and adaptive immunity. Several recent studies have reported a potential role for MFGE8 in regulation of the innate immune response; however, the precise mechanisms underlying this role are poorly understood. Here, we show that MFGE8 is an endogenous inhibitor of inflammasome-induced IL-1β production. MFGE8 inhibited necrotic cell–induced and ATP-dependent IL-1β production by macrophages through mediation of integrin β3 and P2X7 receptor interactions in primed cells.
Nicolas Deroide, Xuan Li, Dominique Lerouet, Emily Van Vré, Lauren Baker, James Harrison, Marine Poittevin, Leanne Masters, Lina Nih, Isabelle Margaill, Yoichiro Iwakura, Bernhard Ryffel, Marc Pocard, Alain Tedgui, Nathalie Kubis, Ziad Mallat
During sepsis, acute lung injury (ALI) results from activation of innate immune cells and endothelial cells by endotoxins, leading to systemic inflammation through proinflammatory cytokine overproduction, oxidative stress, and intracellular Ca2+ overload. Despite considerable investigation, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) leading to LPS-induced ALI remain elusive. To determine whether stromal interaction molecule 1–dependent (STIM1-dependent) signaling drives endothelial dysfunction in response to LPS, we investigated oxidative and STIM1 signaling of EC-specific
Rajesh Kumar Gandhirajan, Shu Meng, Harish C. Chandramoorthy, Karthik Mallilankaraman, Salvatore Mancarella, Hui Gao, Roshanak Razmpour, Xiao-Feng Yang, Steven R. Houser, Ju Chen, Walter J. Koch, Hong Wang, Jonathan Soboloff, Donald L. Gill, Muniswamy Madesh
iRHOM2, encoded by the gene
Priya Darshinee A. Issuree, Thorsten Maretzky, David R. McIlwain, Sébastien Monette, Xiaoping Qing, Philipp A. Lang, Steven L. Swendeman, Kyung-Hyun Park-Min, Nikolaus Binder, George D. Kalliolias, Anna Yarilina, Keisuke Horiuchi, Lionel B. Ivashkiv, Tak W. Mak, Jane E. Salmon, Carl P. Blobel
Low-grade chronic inflammation is a major characteristic of obesity and results from deregulated white adipose tissue function. Consequently, there is interest in identifying the underlying regulatory mechanisms and components that drive adipocyte inflammation. Here, we report that expression of the transcriptional corepressor complex subunits GPS2 and SMRT was significantly reduced in obese adipose tissue, inversely correlated to inflammatory status, and was restored upon gastric bypass surgery–induced weight loss in morbid obesity. These alterations correlated with reduced occupancy of the corepressor complex at inflammatory promoters, providing a mechanistic explanation for elevated inflammatory transcription. In support of these correlations, RNAi-mediated depletion of GPS2 and SMRT from cultured human adipocytes promoted derepression of inflammatory transcription and elevation of obesity-associated inflammatory markers, such as IL-6 and MCP-1. Furthermore, we identified a regulatory cascade containing PPARγ and TWIST1 that controlled the expression of GPS2 and SMRT in human adipocytes. These findings were clinically relevant, because treatment of diabetic obese patients with pioglitazone, an antidiabetic and antiinflammatory PPARγ agonist, restored expression of TWIST1, GPS2, and SMRT in adipose tissue. Collectively, our findings identify alterations in a regulatory transcriptional network in adipocytes involving the dysregulation of a specific corepressor complex as among the initiating events promoting adipose tissue inflammation in human obesity.
Amine Toubal, Karine Clément, Rongrong Fan, Patricia Ancel, Veronique Pelloux, Christine Rouault, Nicolas Veyrie, Agnes Hartemann, Eckardt Treuter, Nicolas Venteclef
Influenza causes substantial morbidity and mortality, and highly pathogenic and drug-resistant strains are likely to emerge in the future. Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is a thrombin-activated receptor that contributes to inflammatory responses at mucosal surfaces. The role of PAR1 in pathogenesis of virus infections is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that PAR1 contributed to the deleterious inflammatory response after influenza virus infection in mice. Activating PAR1 by administering the agonist TFLLR-NH2 decreased survival and increased lung inflammation after influenza infection. Importantly, both administration of a PAR1 antagonist and PAR1 deficiency protected mice from infection with influenza A viruses (IAVs). Treatment with the PAR1 agonist did not alter survival of mice deficient in plasminogen (PLG), which suggests that PLG permits and/or interacts with a PAR1 function in this model. PAR1 antagonists are in human trials for other indications. Our findings suggest that PAR1 antagonism might be explored as a treatment for influenza, including that caused by highly pathogenic H5N1 and oseltamivir-resistant H1N1 viruses.
Khaled Khoufache, Fatma Berri, Wolfgang Nacken, Annette B. Vogel, Marie Delenne, Eric Camerer, Shaun R. Coughlin, Peter Carmeliet, Bruno Lina, Guus F. Rimmelzwaan, Oliver Planz, Stephan Ludwig, Béatrice Riteau
Bacterial LPS (endotoxin) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute liver disease through its induction of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α. TNF-α is a key determinant of the outcome in a well-established mouse model of acute liver failure during septic shock. One possible mechanism for regulating TNF-α expression is through the control of protein elongation during translation, which would allow rapid cell adaptation to physiological changes. However, the regulation of translational elongation is poorly understood. We found that expression of p38γ/δ MAPK proteins is required for the elongation of nascent TNF-α protein in macrophages. The MKK3/6-p38γ/δ pathway mediated an inhibitory phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) kinase, which in turn promoted eEF2 activation (dephosphorylation) and subsequent TNF-α elongation. These results identify a new signaling pathway that regulates TNF-α production in LPS-induced liver damage and suggest potential cell-specific therapeutic targets for liver diseases in which TNF-α production is involved.
Bárbara González-Terán, José R. Cortés, Elisa Manieri, Nuria Matesanz, Ángeles Verdugo, María E. Rodríguez, Águeda González-Rodríguez, Ángela Valverde, Pilar Martín, Roger J. Davis, Guadalupe Sabio
Exaggerated contraction of airway smooth muscle is the major cause of symptoms in asthma, but the mechanisms that prevent exaggerated contraction are incompletely understood. Here, we showed that integrin α9β1 on airway smooth muscle localizes the polyamine catabolizing enzyme spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) in close proximity to the lipid kinase PIP5K1γ. As PIP5K1γ is the major source of PIP2 in airway smooth muscle and its activity is regulated by higher-order polyamines, this interaction inhibited IP3-dependent airway smooth muscle contraction. Mice lacking integrin α9β1 in smooth muscle had increased airway responsiveness in vivo, and loss or inhibition of integrin α9β1 increased in vitro airway narrowing and airway smooth muscle contraction in murine and human airways. Contraction was enhanced in control airways by the higher-order polyamine spermine or by cell-permeable PIP2, but these interventions had no effect on airways lacking integrin α9β1 or treated with integrin α9β1–blocking antibodies. Enhancement of SSAT activity or knockdown of PIP5K1γ inhibited airway contraction, but only in the presence of functional integrin α9β1. Therefore, integrin α9β1 appears to serve as a brake on airway smooth muscle contraction by recruiting SSAT, which facilitates local catabolism of polyamines and thereby inhibits PIP5K1γ. Targeting key components of this pathway could thus lead to new treatment strategies for asthma.
Chun Chen, Makoto Kudo, Florentine Rutaganira, Hiromi Takano, Candace Lee, Amha Atakilit, Kathryn S. Robinett, Toshimitsu Uede, Paul J. Wolters, Kevan M. Shokat, Xiaozhu Huang, Dean Sheppard
Allergic asthma is the most common form of asthma, affecting more than 10 million Americans. Although it is clear that mast cells have a key role in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma, the mechanisms by which they regulate airway narrowing in vivo remain to be elucidated. Here we report that mice lacking αvβ6 integrin are protected from exaggerated airway narrowing in a model of allergic asthma. Expression microarrays of the airway epithelium revealed mast cell proteases among the most prominent differentially expressed genes, with expression of mouse mast cell protease 1 (mMCP-1) induced by allergen challenge in WT mice and expression of mMCP-4, -5, and -6 increased at baseline in β6-deficient mice. These findings were most likely explained by loss of TGF-β activation, since the epithelial integrin αvβ6 is a critical activator of latent TGF-β, and in vitro–differentiated mast cells showed TGF-β–dependent expression of mMCP-1 and suppression of mMCP-4 and -6. In vitro, mMCP-1 increased contractility of murine tracheal rings, an effect that depended on intact airway epithelium, whereas mMCP-4 inhibited IL-13–induced epithelial-independent enhancement of contractility. These results suggest that intraepithelial activation of TGF-β by the αvβ6 integrin regulates airway responsiveness by modulating mast cell protease expression and that these proteases and their proteolytic substrates could be novel targets for improved treatment of allergic asthma.
Kotaro Sugimoto, Makoto Kudo, Aparna Sundaram, Xin Ren, Katherine Huang, Xin Bernstein, Yanli Wang, Wilfred W. Raymond, David J. Erle, Magnus Åbrink, George H. Caughey, Xiaozhu Huang, Dean Sheppard
Current paradigms suggest that two macrophage subsets, termed M1 and M2, are involved in inflammation and host defense. While the distinct functions of M1 and M2 macrophages have been intensively studied — the former are considered proinflammatory and the latter antiinflammatory — the determinants of their speciation are incompletely understood. Here we report our studies that identify Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) as a critical regulator of macrophage polarization. Macrophage KLF4 expression was robustly induced in M2 macrophages and strongly reduced in M1 macrophages, observations that were recapitulated in human inflammatory paradigms in vivo. Mechanistically, KLF4 was found to cooperate with Stat6 to induce an M2 genetic program and inhibit M1 targets via sequestration of coactivators required for NF-κB activation. KLF4-deficient macrophages demonstrated increased proinflammatory gene expression, enhanced bactericidal activity, and altered metabolism. Furthermore, mice bearing myeloid-specific deletion of KLF4 exhibited delayed wound healing and were predisposed to developing diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. Collectively, these data identify KLF4 as what we believe to be a novel regulator of macrophage polarization.
Xudong Liao, Nikunj Sharma, Fehmida Kapadia, Guangjin Zhou, Yuan Lu, Hong Hong, Kaavya Paruchuri, Ganapati H. Mahabeleshwar, Elise Dalmas, Nicolas Venteclef, Chris A. Flask, Julian Kim, Bryan W. Doreian, Kurt Q. Lu, Klaus H. Kaestner, Anne Hamik, Karine Clément, Mukesh K. Jain
Shedding of the extracellular domain of cytokine receptors allows the diffusion of soluble receptors into the extracellular space; these then bind and neutralize their cytokine ligands, thus dampening inflammatory responses. The molecular mechanisms that control this process, and the extent to which shedding regulates cytokine-induced microvascular inflammation, are not well defined. Here, we used real-time confocal microscopy of mouse lung microvascular endothelium to demonstrate that mitochondria are key regulators of this process. The proinflammatory cytokine soluble TNF-α (sTNF-α) increased mitochondrial Ca2+, and the purinergic receptor P2Y2 prolonged the response. Concomitantly, the proinflammatory receptor TNF-α receptor–1 (TNFR1) was shed from the endothelial surface. Inhibiting the mitochondrial Ca2+ increase blocked the shedding and augmented inflammation, as denoted by increases in endothelial expression of the leukocyte adhesion receptor E-selectin and in microvascular leukocyte recruitment. The shedding was also blocked in microvessels after knockdown of a complex III component and after mitochondria-targeted catalase overexpression. Endothelial deletion of the TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE) prevented the TNF-α receptor shedding response, which suggests that exposure of microvascular endothelium to sTNF-α induced a Ca2+-dependent increase of mitochondrial H2O2 that caused TNFR1 shedding through TACE activation. These findings provide what we believe to be the first evidence that endothelial mitochondria regulate TNFR1 shedding and thereby determine the severity of sTNF-α–induced microvascular inflammation.
David J. Rowlands, Mohammad Naimul Islam, Shonit R. Das, Alice Huertas, Sadiqa K. Quadri, Keisuke Horiuchi, Nilufar Inamdar, Memet T. Emin, Jens Lindert, Vadim S. Ten, Sunita Bhattacharya, Jahar Bhattacharya
Crohn disease (CD) is a multifactorial disease in which an abnormal immune response in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract leads to chronic inflammation. The small intestine, particularly the ileum, of patients with CD is colonized by adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) — a pathogenic group of E. coli able to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells. As the earliest inflammatory lesions are microscopic erosions of the epithelium lining the Peyer’s patches (PPs), we investigated the ability of AIEC bacteria to interact with PPs and the virulence factors involved. We found that AIEC bacteria could interact with mouse and human PPs via long polar fimbriae (LPF). An LPF-negative AIEC mutant was highly impaired in its ability to interact with mouse and human PPs and to translocate across monolayers of M cells, specialized epithelial cells at the surface of PPs. The prevalence of AIEC strains harboring the lpf operon was markedly higher in CD patients compared with controls. In addition, increased numbers of AIEC, but not LPF-deficient AIEC, bacteria were found interacting with PPs from Nod2–/– mice compared with WT mice. In conclusion, we have identified LPF as a key factor for AIEC to target PPs. This could be the missing link between AIEC colonization and the presence of early lesions in the PPs of CD patients.
Benoit Chassaing, Nathalie Rolhion, Amélie de Vallée, Sa’ad Y. Salim, Maelle Prorok-Hamon, Christel Neut, Barry J. Campbell, Johan D. Söderholm, Jean-Pierre Hugot, Jean-Frédéric Colombel, Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud
The regulation of neutrophil lifespan by induction of apoptosis is critical for maintaining an effective host response and preventing excessive inflammation. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) oxygen-sensing pathway has a major effect on the susceptibility of neutrophils to apoptosis, with a marked delay in cell death observed under hypoxic conditions. HIF expression and transcriptional activity are regulated by the oxygen-sensitive prolyl hydroxylases (PHD1–3), but the role of PHDs in neutrophil survival is unclear. We examined PHD expression in human neutrophils and found that PHD3 was strongly induced in response to hypoxia and inflammatory stimuli in vitro and in vivo. Using neutrophils from mice deficient in Phd3, we demonstrated a unique role for Phd3 in prolonging neutrophil survival during hypoxia, distinct from other hypoxia-associated changes in neutrophil function and metabolic activity. Moreover, this selective defect in neutrophil survival occurred in the presence of preserved HIF transcriptional activity but was associated with upregulation of the proapoptotic mediator Siva1 and loss of its binding target Bcl-xL. In vivo, using an acute lung injury model, we observed increased levels of neutrophil apoptosis and clearance in Phd3-deficient mice compared with WT controls. We also observed reduced neutrophilic inflammation in an acute mouse model of colitis. These data support what we believe to be a novel function for PHD3 in regulating neutrophil survival in hypoxia and may enable the development of new therapeutics for inflammatory disease.
Sarah R. Walmsley, Edwin R. Chilvers, Alfred A. Thompson, Kathryn Vaughan, Helen M. Marriott, Lisa C. Parker, Gary Shaw, Selina Parmar, Martin Schneider, Ian Sabroe, David H. Dockrell, Marta Milo, Cormac T. Taylor, Randall S. Johnson, Christopher W. Pugh, Peter J. Ratcliffe, Patrick H. Maxwell, Peter Carmeliet, Moira K.B. Whyte
Uncontrolled macrophage activation is now considered to be a critical event in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis, and chronic venous leg ulcers. However, it is still unclear which environmental cues induce persistent activation of macrophages in vivo and how macrophage-derived effector molecules maintain chronic inflammation and affect resident fibroblasts essential for tissue homeostasis and repair. We used a complementary approach studying human subjects with chronic venous leg ulcers, a model disease for macrophage-driven chronic inflammation, while establishing a mouse model closely reflecting its pathogenesis. Here, we have shown that iron overloading of macrophages — as was found to occur in human chronic venous leg ulcers and the mouse model — induced a macrophage population in situ with an unrestrained proinflammatory M1 activation state. Via enhanced TNF-α and hydroxyl radical release, this macrophage population perpetuated inflammation and induced a p16INK4a-dependent senescence program in resident fibroblasts, eventually leading to impaired wound healing. This study provides insight into the role of what we believe to be a previously undescribed iron-induced macrophage population in vivo. Targeting this population may hold promise for the development of novel therapies for chronic inflammatory diseases such as chronic venous leg ulcers.
Anca Sindrilaru, Thorsten Peters, Stefan Wieschalka, Corina Baican, Adrian Baican, Henriette Peter, Adelheid Hainzl, Susanne Schatz, Yu Qi, Andrea Schlecht, Johannes M. Weiss, Meinhard Wlaschek, Cord Sunderkötter, Karin Scharffetter-Kochanek
Activation of NF-κB and 5-lipoxygenase–mediated (5-LO–mediated) biosynthesis of the lipid mediator leukotriene B4 (LTB4) are pivotal components of host defense and inflammatory responses. However, the role of LTB4 in mediating innate immune responses elicited by specific TLR ligands and cytokines is unknown. Here we have shown that responses dependent on MyD88 (an adaptor protein that mediates signaling through all of the known TLRs, except TLR3, as well as IL-1β and IL-18) are reduced in mice lacking either 5-LO or the LTB4 receptor BTL1, and that macrophages from these mice are impaired in MyD88-dependent activation of NF-κB. This macrophage defect was associated with lower basal and inducible expression of MyD88 and reflected impaired activation of STAT1 and overexpression of the STAT1 inhibitor SOCS1. Expression of MyD88 and responsiveness to the TLR4 ligand LPS were decreased by Stat1 siRNA silencing in WT macrophages and restored by Socs1 siRNA in 5-LO–deficient macrophages. These results uncover a pivotal role in macrophages for the GPCR BLT1 in regulating activation of NF-κB through Stat1-dependent expression of MyD88.
Carlos H. Serezani, Casey Lewis, Sonia Jancar, Marc Peters-Golden
Granulocytes are pivotal regulators of tissue injury. However, the transcriptional mechanisms that regulate granulopoiesis under inflammatory conditions are poorly understood. Here we show that the transcriptional coregulator B cell leukemia/lymphoma 3 (Bcl3) limits granulopoiesis under emergency (i.e., inflammatory) conditions, but not homeostatic conditions. Treatment of mouse myeloid progenitors with G-CSF — serum concentrations of which rise under inflammatory conditions — rapidly increased Bcl3 transcript accumulation in a STAT3-dependent manner. Bcl3-deficient myeloid progenitors demonstrated an enhanced capacity to proliferate and differentiate into granulocytes following G-CSF stimulation, whereas the accumulation of Bcl3 protein attenuated granulopoiesis in an NF-κB p50–dependent manner. In a clinically relevant model of transplant-mediated lung ischemia reperfusion injury, expression of Bcl3 in recipients inhibited emergency granulopoiesis and limited acute graft damage. These data demonstrate a critical role for Bcl3 in regulating emergency granulopoiesis and suggest that targeting the differentiation of myeloid progenitors may be a therapeutic strategy for preventing inflammatory lung injury.
Daniel Kreisel, Seiichiro Sugimoto, Jeremy Tietjens, Jihong Zhu, Sumiharu Yamamoto, Alexander S. Krupnick, Ruaidhri J. Carmody, Andrew E. Gelman
Chong Chen, Yu Liu, Yang Liu, Pan Zheng
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a signaling molecule that senses environmental cues, such as nutrient status and oxygen supply, to regulate cell growth, proliferation, and other functions. Unchecked, sustained mTOR activity results in defects in HSC function. Inflammatory conditions, such as autoimmune disease, are often associated with defective hematopoiesis. Here, we investigated whether hyperactivation of mTOR in HSCs contributes to hematopoietic defects in autoimmunity and inflammation. We found that in mice deficient in Foxp3 (scurfy mice), a model of autoimmunity, the development of autoimmune disease correlated with progressive bone marrow loss and impaired regenerative capacity of HSCs in competitive bone marrow transplantation. Similarly, LPS-mediated inflammation in C57BL/6 mice led to massive bone marrow cell death and impaired HSC function. Importantly, treatment with rapamycin in both models corrected bone marrow hypocellularity and partially restored hematopoietic activity. In cultured mouse bone marrow cells, treatment with either of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 or TNF-α was sufficient to activate mTOR, while preventing mTOR activation in vivo required simultaneous inhibition of CCL2, IL-6, and TNF-α. These data strongly suggest that mTOR activation in HSCs by inflammatory cytokines underlies defective hematopoiesis in autoimmune disease and inflammation.
Chong Chen, Yu Liu, Yang Liu, Pan Zheng
The alternative pathway (AP) of complement activation is constitutively active and must be regulated by host proteins to prevent autologous tissue injury. Dysfunction of AP regulatory proteins has been linked to several human inflammatory disorders. Properdin is a positive regulator of AP complement activation that has been shown to extend the half-life of cell surface–bound C3 convertase C3bBb; it may also initiate AP complement activation. Here, we demonstrate a critical role for properdin in autologous tissue injury mediated by AP complement activation. We identified myeloid lineage cells as the principal source of plasma properdin by generating mice with global and tissue-specific knockout of Cfp (which encodes properdin) and by generating BM chimeric mice. Properdin deficiency rescued mice from AP complement–mediated embryonic lethality caused by deficiency of the membrane complement regulator Crry and markedly reduced disease severity in the K/BxN model of arthritis. Ab neutralization of properdin in WT mice similarly ameliorated arthritis development, whereas reconstitution of properdin-null mice with exogenous properdin restored arthritis sensitivity. These data implicate systemic properdin as a key contributor to AP complement–mediated injury and support its therapeutic targeting in complement-dependent human diseases.
Yuko Kimura, Lin Zhou, Takashi Miwa, Wen-Chao Song
Activated protein C (aPC) therapy reduces mortality in adult patients with severe sepsis. In mouse endotoxemia and sepsis models, mortality reduction requires the cell signaling function of aPC, mediated through protease-activated receptor–1 (PAR1) and endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR; also known as Procr). Candidate cellular targets of aPC include vascular endothelial cells and leukocytes. Here, we show that expression of EPCR and PAR1 on hematopoietic cells is required in mice for an aPC variant that mediates full cell signaling activity but only minimal anticoagulant function (5A-aPC) to reduce the mortality of endotoxemia. Expression of EPCR in mature murine immune cells was limited to a subset of CD8+ conventional dendritic cells. Adoptive transfer of splenic CD11chiPDCA-1– dendritic cells from wild-type mice into animals with hematopoietic EPCR deficiency restored the therapeutic efficacy of aPC, whereas transfer of EPCR-deficient CD11chi dendritic cells or wild-type CD11chi dendritic cells depleted of EPCR+ cells did not. In addition, 5A-aPC inhibited the inflammatory response of conventional dendritic cells independent of EPCR and suppressed IFN-γ production by natural killer–like dendritic cells. These data reveal an essential role for EPCR and PAR1 on hematopoietic cells, identify EPCR-expressing dendritic immune cells as a critical target of aPC therapy, and document EPCR-independent antiinflammatory effects of aPC on innate immune cells.
Edward Kerschen, Irene Hernandez, Mark Zogg, Shuang Jia, Martin J. Hessner, Jose Fernandez, John H. Griffin, Claudia S. Huettner, Francis J. Castellino, Hartmut Weiler
No posts were found with this tag.