Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 play important roles in the early innate immune response to microbial challenge. To clarify the functional roles of TLRs 2 and 4 in mast cells, we examined bone marrow–derived mast cells (BMMCs) from TLR2 or TLR4 gene-targeted mice. Peptidoglycan (PGN) from Staphylococcus aureus stimulated mast cells in a TLR2-dependent manner to produce TNF-α, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-13, but not IL-1β. In contrast, LPS from Escherichia coli stimulated mast cells in a TLR4-dependent manner to produce TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-13, but not IL-4 nor IL-5. Furthermore, TLR2- but not TLR4-dependent mast cell stimulation resulted in mast cell degranulation and Ca2+ mobilization. In a mast cell–dependent model of acute sepsis, TLR4 deficiency of BMMCs in mice resulted in significantly higher mortality because of defective neutrophil recruitment and production of proinflammatory cytokines in the peritoneal cavity. Intradermal injection of PGN led to increased vasodilatation and inflammation through TLR2-dependent activation of mast cells in the skin. Taken together, these results suggest that direct activation of mast cells via TLR2 or TLR4 by respective microligands contributes to innate and allergic immune responses.
Volaluck Supajatura, Hiroko Ushio, Atsuhito Nakao, Shizuo Akira, Ko Okumura, Chisei Ra, Hideoki Ogawa
Leukotrienes are lipid mediators that evoke primarily proinflammatory responses by activating receptors present on virtually all cells. The production of leukotrienes is tightly regulated, and expression of 5-lipoxygenase, the enzyme required for the first step in leukotriene synthesis, is generally restricted to leukocytes. Arachidonic acid released from the cell membrane of activated leukocytes is rapidly converted to LTA4 by 5-lipoxygenase. LTA4 is further metabolized to either LTC4 or LTB4 by the enzyme LTC4 synthase or LTA4 hydrolase, respectively. Unlike 5-lipoxygenase, these enzymes are expressed in most tissues. This observation previously has led to the suggestion that LTA4 produced by leukocytes may, in some cases, be delivered to other cell types before being converted into LTC4 or LTB4. While in vitro studies indicate that this process, termed transcellular biosynthesis, can lead to the production of leukotrienes, it has not been possible to determine the significance of this pathway in vivo. Using a series of bone marrow chimeras generated from 5-lipoxygenase– and LTA4 hydrolase–deficient mice, we show here that transcellular biosynthesis contributes to the production of leukotrienes in vivo and that leukotrienes produced by this pathway are sufficient to contribute significantly to the physiological changes that characterize an ongoing inflammatory response.
Jean-Etienne Fabre, Jennifer L. Goulet, Estelle Riche, MyTrang Nguyen, Kenneth Coggins, Steven Offenbacher, Beverly H. Koller
To understand the relationship between host antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and donor T cells in initiating graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), we followed the fate of host dendritic cells (DCs) in irradiated C57BL/6 (B6) recipient mice and the interaction of these cells with minor histocompatibility antigen- (miHA-) mismatched CD8+ T cells from C3H.SW donors. Host CD11c+ DCs were rapidly activated and aggregated in the T cell areas of the spleen within 6 hours of lethal irradiation. By 5 days after irradiation, <1% of host DCs were detectable, but the activated donor CD8+ T cells had already undergone as many as seven divisions. Thus, proliferation of donor CD8+ T cells preceded the disappearance of host DCs. When C3H.SW donor CD8+ T cells were primed in vivo in irradiated B6 mice or ex vivo by host CD11c+ DCs for 24–36 hours, they were able to proliferate and differentiate into IFN-γ–producing cells in β2-microglobulin–deficient (β2m–/–) B6 recipients and to mediate acute GVHD in β2m–/– → B6 chimeric mice. These results indicate that, although host DCs disappear rapidly after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, they prime donor T cells before their disappearance and play a critical role in triggering donor CD8+ T cell–mediated GVHD.
Yi Zhang, Jean-Pierre Louboutin, Jiang Zhu, Adam J. Rivera, Stephen G. Emerson
Rotaviruses are the leading cause of severe diarrheal disease in young children. Intestinal mucosal IgA responses play a critical role in protective immunity against rotavirus reinfection. Rotaviruses consist of three concentric capsid layers surrounding a genome of 11 segments of double-stranded RNA. The outer layer proteins, VP4 and VP7, which are responsible for viral attachment and entry, are targets for protective neutralizing antibodies. However, IgA mAb’s directed against the intermediate capsid protein VP6, which do not neutralize the virus, have also been shown to protect mice from rotavirus infection and clear chronic infection in SCID mice. We investigated whether the anti-VP6 IgA (7D9) mAb could inhibit rotavirus replication inside epithelial cells and found that 7D9 acted at an early stage of infection to neutralize rotavirus following antibody lipofection. Using electron cryomicroscopy, we determined the three-dimensional structure of the virus-antibody complex. The attachment of 7D9 IgA to VP6 introduces a conformational change in the VP6 trimer, rendering the particle transcriptionally incompetent and preventing the elongation of initiated transcripts. Based on these observations, we suggest that anti-VP6 IgA antibodies confers protection in vivo by inhibiting viral transcription at the start of the intracellular phase of the viral replication cycle.
Ningguo Feng, Jeffrey A. Lawton, Joana Gilbert, Nelly Kuklin, Phuoc Vo, B.V. Venkataram Prasad, Harry B. Greenberg
While the pathologic mechanisms responsible for organ-specific tissue damage in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) remain an enigma, it has been suggested that the pathology is mediated by autoreactive T cells infiltrating the intrahepatic bile ducts. Previously, we have documented that there is 100-fold enrichment in the frequency of CD4+ autoreactive T cells in the liver that are specific for peptides encoded by the E2 components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes (PDC-E2). We have also recently characterized the first MHC class I–restricted epitope for PDC-E2, namely amino acid 159–167, a region very similar to the epitope recognized by MHC class II–restricted CD4+ cells and by autoantibodies. The effector functions of these PDC-E2159-167–specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are not well understood. We have taken advantage of tetramer technology and report herein that there is tenfold increase in the frequency of PDC-E2159-167–specific CTLs in the liver as compared with the blood in PBC. In addition, the precursor frequency of the CTLs in blood was significantly higher in early-stage PBC. Of interest was the fact that, upon stimulation with the peptide, the response of PDC-E2159-167 tetramer-positive cells is heterogeneous with respect to IFN-γ synthesis. These data, we believe for the first time, document the enrichment of autoantigen-specific CD8+ T cells in the PBC liver, suggesting that CD8+ T cells play a significant role in the immunopathogenesis of PBC.
Hiroto Kita, Shuji Matsumura, Xiao-Song He, Aftab A. Ansari, Zhe-Xiong Lian, Judy Van de Water, Ross L. Coppel, Marshall M. Kaplan, M. Eric Gershwin
Older bone marrow transplantation (BMT) recipients are at heightened risk for acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic BMT, but the causes of this association are poorly understood. Using well-characterized murine BMT models we have explored the mechanisms of increased GVHD in older mice. GVHD mortality, morbidity, and pathologic and biochemical indices were all worse in old recipients. Donor T cell responses were significantly increased in old recipients both in vivo and in vitro when stimulated by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) from old mice, which also secreted more TNF-α and IL-12 after LPS stimulation. In a B6 → B6D2F1 model, CD4+ donor T cells but not CD8+ T cells mediated more severe GVHD in old mice. We confirmed the role of aged APCs in GVHD using B6D2F1 BM chimeras created with either old or young BM. Four months after chimera creation, allogeneic BMT from B6 donors caused significantly worse GVHD in old BM chimeras. APCs from these mice also stimulated greater responses from allogeneic cells in vitro. These data demonstrate a hitherto unsuspected mechanism of amplified donor T cell responses by aged allogeneic host APCs that increases acute GVHD in aged recipients in this BMT model.
Rainer Ordemann, Raymond Hutchinson, Jeffrey Friedman, Steven J. Burakoff, Pavan Reddy, Ulrich Duffner, Thomas M. Braun, Chen Liu, Takanori Teshima, James L.M. Ferrara
The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a transcription factor that mediates the actions of its ligand, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], which can promote monocyte/macrophage differentiation and inhibit proliferation and cytokine production by activated T lymphocytes. In this study, VDR knockout (KO) mice were used to investigate the possible role of VDR in hematopoiesis. The relative number of red and white peripheral blood cells and the percentage of bone marrow macrophages did not differ between VDR KO and wild-type mice. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, but not 1,25(OH)2D3, induced differentiation of bone marrow-committed myeloid stem cells from VDR KO mice to monocytes/macrophages. Production of IL-18, a Th1-promoting cytokine, was reduced in macrophages from these mice. Antigen-stimulated spleen cells from VDR KO mice showed an impaired Th1 cell response and had decreased expression of STAT4, a Th1 cell transcription factor. These results demonstrate the absolute requirement of VDR for 1,25(OH)2D3-induced monocyte/macrophage differentiation but show that monocyte/macrophage differentiation can occur in the absence of this receptor. The observed reduction in Th1 population in these mutant mice may be explained by a loss of macrophage IL-18 production or a suppression of STAT4 expression by activated splenocytes.
James O’Kelly, Junichi Hisatake, Yasako Hisatake, June Bishop, Anthony Norman, H. Phillip Koeffler
T cells leave the thymus at a specific time during differentiation and do not return despite elaboration of known T cell chemoattractants by thymic stroma. We observed differentiation stage–restricted egress of thymocytes from an artificial thymus in which vascular structures or hemodynamics could not have been playing a role. Hypothesizing that active movement of cells away from a thymic product may be responsible, we demonstrated selective reduction in emigration from primary thymus by inhibitors of active movement down a concentration gradient (chemofugetaxis). Immature intrathymic precursors were insensitive to an emigration signal, whereas mature thymocytes and peripheral blood T cells were sensitive. Thymic stroma was noted to elaborate at least two proteins capable of inducing emigration, one of which was stromal cell–derived factor-1. Thymic emigration is mediated, at least in part, by specific fugetaxis-inducing factors to which only mature cells respond.
Mark C. Poznansky, Ivona T. Olszak, Richard H. Evans, Zhengyu Wang, Russell B. Foxall, Douglas P. Olson, Kathryn Weibrecht, Andrew D. Luster, David T. Scadden
Heterozygosity for C1 inhibitor (C1INH) deficiency results in hereditary angioedema. Disruption of the C1INH gene by gene trapping enabled the generation of homozygous- and heterozygous-deficient mice. Mating of heterozygous-deficient mice resulted in the expected 1:2:1 ratio of wild-type, heterozygous, and homozygous-deficient offspring. C1INH-deficient mice showed no obvious phenotypic abnormality. However, following injection with Evans blue dye, both homozygous and heterozygous C1INH-deficient mice revealed increased vascular permeability in comparison with wild-type littermates. This increased vascular permeability was reversed by treatment with intravenous human C1INH, with a Kunitz domain plasma kallikrein inhibitor (DX88), and with a bradykinin type 2 receptor (Bk2R) antagonist (Hoe140). In addition, treatment of the C1INH-deficient mice with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (captopril) increased the vascular permeability. Mice with deficiency of both C1INH and Bk2R demonstrated diminished vascular permeability in comparison with C1INH-deficient, Bk2R-sufficient mice. These data support the hypothesis that angioedema is mediated by bradykinin via Bk2R.
Eun D. Han, Ryan C. MacFarlane, Aideen N. Mulligan, Jennifer Scafidi, Alvin E. Davis III
Susceptibility to myasthenia gravis (MG) is positively linked to expression of HLA-DQ8 and DR3 molecules and negatively linked to expression of the DQ6 molecule. To elucidate the molecular basis of this association, we have induced experimental autoimmune MG (EAMG) in mice transgenic for HLA-DQ8, DQ6, and DR3, and in DQ8×DQ6 and DQ8×DR3 F1 transgenic mice, by immunization with human acetylcholine receptor (H-AChR) in CFA. Mice expressing transgenes for one or both of the HLA class II molecules positively associated with MG (DQ8 and DR3) developed EAMG. T cells from DQ8 transgenic mice responded well to three cytoplasmic peptide sequences of H-AChR (α320-337, α304-322, and α419-437), of which the response to α320-337 was the most intense. DR3 transgenic mice also responded to this sequence very strongly. H-AChR– and α320-337 peptide–specific lymphocyte responses were restricted by HLA class II molecules. Disease resistance in DQ6 transgenic mice was associated with reduced synthesis of anti-AChR IgG, IgG2b, and IgG2c Ab’s and reduced IL-2 and IFN-γ secretion by H-AChR– and peptide α320-337–specific lymphocytes. Finally, we show that DQ8 imparts susceptibility to EAMG and responsiveness to an epitope within the sequence α320-337 as a dominant trait.
Huan Yang, Elzbieta Goluszko, Chella David, David K. Okita, Bianca Conti-Fine, Teh-sheng Chan, Mathilde A. Poussin, Premkumar Christadoss
Insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease mediated by T lymphocytes recognizing pancreatic islet cell antigens. Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) appears to be an important autoantigen in the disease. However, T cells from both patients with type 1 diabetes and healthy subjects vigorously proliferate in response to GAD65 stimulation ex vivo, leading us to postulate that the critical event in the onset of human diabetes is the activation of autoreactive T cells. Thus, we investigated whether GAD65-reactive T cells in patients with diabetes functioned as previously activated memory T cells, no longer requiring a second, costimulatory signal for clonal expansion. We found that in patients with new-onset type 1 diabetes, GAD65-reactive T cells were strikingly less dependent on CD28 and B7-1 costimulation to enter into cell cycle and proliferate than were equivalent cells derived from healthy controls. We hypothesize that these autoreactive T cells have been activated in vivo and have differentiated into memory cells, suggesting a pathogenic role in type 1 diabetes. In addition, we observed different effects with selective blockade of either B7-1 or B7-2 molecules; B7-1 appears to deliver a negative signal by engaging CTLA-4, while B7-2 engagement of CD28 upregulates T cell proliferation and cytokine secretion.
Vissia Viglietta, Sally C. Kent, Tihamer Orban, David A. Hafler
P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) mediates rolling of leukocytes on P-selectin under flow. The glycoproteins that enable leukocyte tethering to or rolling on E-selectin are not known. We used gene targeting to prepare PSGL-1–deficient (PSGL-1–/–) mice, which were healthy but had moderately elevated total blood leukocytes. Fluid-phase E-selectin bound to approximately 70% fewer sites on PSGL-1–/– than PSGL-1+/+ neutrophils. Compared with PSGL-1+/+ leukocytes, significantly fewer PSGL-1–/– leukocytes rolled on E-selectin in vitro, because their initial tethering to E-selectin was impaired. The residual cells that tethered rolled with the same shear resistance and velocities as PSGL-1+/+ leukocytes. Compared with PSGL-1+/+ mice, significantly fewer PSGL-1–/– leukocytes rolled on E-selectin in TNF-α–treated venules of cremaster muscle in which P-selectin function was blocked by an mAb. The residual PSGL-1–/– leukocytes that tethered rolled with slow velocities equivalent to those of PSGL-1+/+ leukocytes. These results reveal a novel function for PSGL-1 in tethering leukocytes to E-selectin under flow.
Lijun Xia, Markus Sperandio, Tadayuki Yago, J. Michael McDaniel, Richard D. Cummings, Sonia Pearson-White, Klaus Ley, Rodger P. McEver
Chemokines are involved in recruitment and activation of hematopoietic cells in sites of infection and inflammation. The M3 gene of the γ-herpesvirus γHV68 encodes an abundant secreted protein that binds CC chemokines with high affinity. We report here that this gene is essential for efficient induction of lethal meningitis by γHV68. An M3 mutant γHV68 (γHV68-M3.stop) was 100-fold less virulent than wild-type or marker rescue control (γHV68-M3.MR) viruses after intracerebral inoculation. After intracerebral inoculation, γHV68-M3.stop grew to lower titers than γHV68 or γHV68-M3.MR in the brain but spread to and grew normally in the spleen and lung. Expression of several CC chemokines was significantly induced in the CNS by γHV68 infection. Consistent with M3 acting by blockade of CC chemokine action, γHV68 induced a neutrophilic meningeal inflammatory infiltrate, while γHV68-M3.stop induced an infiltrate in which lymphocytes and macrophages predominated. In contrast to the important role of M3 in lethal meningitis, M3 was not required for establishment or reactivation from latent infection or induction of chronic arteritis. These data suggest a role for chemokines in the protection of the nervous system from viral infection and that the M3 protein acts in a tissue-specific fashion during acute but not chronic γHV68 infection to limit CC chemokine–induced inflammatory responses.
Victor van Berkel, Beth Levine, Sharookh B. Kapadia, James E. Goldman, Samuel H. Speck, Herbert W. Virgin IV
IL-15, a T cell growth factor, has been linked to exacerbating autoimmune diseases and allograft rejection. To test the hypothesis that IL-15–deficient (IL-15–/–) mice would be protected from T cell–dependent nephritis, we induced nephrotoxic serum nephritis (NSN) in IL-15–/– and wild-type (IL-15+/+) C57BL/6 mice. Contrary to our expectations, IL-15 protects the kidney during this T cell–dependent immunologic insult. Tubular, interstitial, and glomerular pathology and renal function are worse in IL-15–/– mice during NSN. We detected a substantial increase in tubular apoptosis in IL-15–/– kidneys. Moreover, macrophages and CD4 T cells are more abundant in the interstitia and glomeruli in IL-15–/– mice. This led us to identify several mechanisms responsible for heightened renal injury in the absence of IL-15. We now report that IL-15 and the IL-15 receptor (α, β, γ chains) are constitutively expressed in normal tubular epithelial cells (TECs). IL-15 is an autocrine survival factor for TECs. TEC apoptosis induced with anti-Fas or actinomycin D is substantially greater in IL-15–/– than in wild-type TECs. Moreover, IL-15 decreases the induction of a nephritogenic chemokine, MCP-1, that attracts leukocytes into the kidney during NSN. Taken together, we suggest that IL-15 is a therapeutic for tubulointerstitial and glomerular kidney diseases.
Michiya Shinozaki, Junichi Hirahashi, Tatiana Lebedeva, Foo Y. Liew, David J. Salant, Ruth Maron, Vicki Rubin Kelley
Vitiligo is a common depigmenting disorder resulting from the loss of melanocytes in the skin. The pathogenesis of the disease remains obscure, although autoimmune mechanisms are thought to be involved. Indeed, autoantibodies and autoreactive T lymphocytes that target melanocytes have been reported in some vitiligo patients. The objective of this study was to identify pigment cell antigens that are recognized by autoantibodies in vitiligo. Using IgG from vitiligo patients to screen a melanocyte cDNA phage-display library, we identified the melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1) as a novel autoantigen related to this disorder. Immunoreactivity against the receptor was demonstrated in vitiligo patient sera by using radiobinding assays. Among sera from healthy controls and from patients with autoimmune disease, none exhibited immunoreactivity to MCHR1, indicating a high disease specificity for Ab’s against the receptor. Inhibition of MCH binding to its receptor by IgG from vitiligo patients was also shown.
E. Helen Kemp, Elizabeth A. Waterman, Brian E. Hawes, Kim O’Neill, Raju V.S.R.K. Gottumukkala, David J. Gawkrodger, Anthony P. Weetman, Philip F. Watson
The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by the presence of pathogenic autoantibodies against β2-glycoprotein-I (β2GPI). The factors causing production of anti-β2GPI remain unidentified, but an association with infectious agents has been reported. Recently, we identified a hexapeptide (TLRVYK) that is recognized specifically by a pathogenic anti-β2GPI mAb. In the present study we evaluated the APS-related pathogenic potential of microbial pathogens carrying sequences related to this hexapeptide. Mice immunized with a panel of microbial preparations were studied for the development of anti-β2GPI autoantibodies. IgG specific to the TLRVYK peptide were affinity purified from the immunized mice and passively infused intravenously into naive mice at day 0 of pregnancy. APS parameters were evaluated in the infused mice on day 15 of pregnancy. Following immunization, high titers of antipeptide [TLRVYK] anti-β2GPI Ab’s were observed in mice immunized with Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, or tetanus toxoid. The specificity of binding to the corresponding target molecules was confirmed by competition and immunoblot assays. Naive mice infused with the affinity-purified antipeptide Ab’s had significant thrombocytopenia, prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time and elevated percentage of fetal loss, similar to a control group of mice immunized with a pathogenic anti-β2GPI mAb. Our study establishes a mechanism of molecular mimicry in experimental APS, demonstrating that bacterial peptides homologous with β2GPI induce pathogenic anti-β2GPI Ab’s along with APS manifestations.
Miri Blank, Ilan Krause, Mati Fridkin, Nathan Keller, Juri Kopolovic, Iris Goldberg, Ana Tobar, Yehuda Shoenfeld
To date, most studies have focused on the characterization of HIV-1–specific cellular immune responses in the peripheral blood (PB) of infected individuals. Much less is known about the comparative magnitude and breadth of responses in the lymphoid tissue. This study analyzed HIV-1–specific CD8+ T cell responses simultaneously in PB and lymph nodes (LNs) of persons with chronic HIV-1 infection and assessed the dynamics of these responses during antiretroviral treatment and supervised treatment interruption (STI). In untreated chronic infection, the magnitude of epitope-specific CD8+ T cell activity was significantly higher in LNs than in PB. Responses decreased in both compartments during highly active antiretroviral therapy, but this decline was more pronounced in PB. During STI, HIV-1–specific CD8+ T cell responses in PB increased significantly. Enhancement in breadth and magnitude was largely due to the expansion of pre-existing responses in the LNs, with new epitopes infrequently targeted. Taken together, these data demonstrate that HIV-1–specific CD8+ T cells are preferentially located in the LNs, with a subset of responses exclusively detectable in this compartment. Furthermore, the enhanced CD8+ T cell responses observed during STI in chronically infected individuals is largely due to expansion of pre-existing virus-specific CD8+ T cells, rather than the induction of novel responses.
Marcus Altfeld, Jan van Lunzen, Nicole Frahm, Xu G. Yu, Claus Schneider, Robert L. Eldridge, Margaret E. Feeney, Dirk Meyer-Olson, Hans-Juergen Stellbrink, Bruce D. Walker
Agonistic αCD40 Ab’s have been shown to be potent immune adjuvants for both cell- and humoral-mediated immunity. While enhancing short-lived humoral immunity, the administration of a CD40 agonist during thymus-dependent immune responses ablates germinal center formation, prematurely terminates the humoral immune response, blocks the generation of B cell memory, and prevents the generation of long-lived bone marrow plasma cells. Interestingly, some of these effects of heightened CD40 engagement could be mimicked by enhancing the magnitude of antigen-specific T cell help. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that as the magnitude of CD40 signaling intensifies, the fate of antigen-reactive B cells can be dramatically altered. These are the first studies to describe the multifaceted function of CD40 in determining the fate of antigen-reactive B cells and provide novel insights into how CD40 agonists can short-circuit humoral immunity.
Loren D. Erickson, Brigit G. Durell, Laura A. Vogel, Brian P. O’Connor, Marilia Cascalho, Teruhito Yasui, Hitoshi Kikutani, Randolph J. Noelle
Treatment of advanced, poorly immunogenic tumors in animal models, considered the closest simulation available thus far for conditions observed in cancer patients, remains a major challenge for cancer immunotherapy. We reported previously that established tumors in mice receiving an agonistic mAb to the T cell costimulatory molecule 4-1BB (CD137) regress due to enhanced tumor antigen–specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. In this study, we demonstrate that several poorly immunogenic tumors, including C3 tumor, TC-1 lung carcinoma, and B16-F10 melanoma, once established as solid tumors or metastases, are refractory to treatment by anti–4-1BB mAb. We provide evidence that immunological ignorance, rather than anergy or deletion, of tumor antigen–specific CTLs during the progressive growth of tumors prevents costimulation by anti–4-1BB mAb. Breaking CTL ignorance by immunization with a tumor antigen–derived peptide, although insufficient to stimulate a curative CTL response, is necessary for anti–4-1BB mAb to induce a CTL response leading to the regression of established tumors. Our results suggest a new approach for immunotherapy of human cancers.
Ryan A. Wilcox, Dallas B. Flies, Gefeng Zhu, Aaron J. Johnson, Koji Tamada, Andrei I. Chapoval, Scott E. Strome, Larry R. Pease, Lieping Chen
Glatiramer acetate (GA; Copaxone) is a random copolymer of glutamic acid, lysine, alanine, and tyrosine that is used therapeutically in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate the mechanism of the drug’s immunomodulatory effect, we used immunophenotypic approaches to characterize the precise nature of GA-induced T cell responses. We demonstrate here that healthy individuals and untreated MS patients exhibit prominent T cell proliferative responses to GA. However, these responses are different in distinct subsets of T cells. Whereas GA-induced CD4+ T cell responses are comparable in healthy individuals and MS patients, CD8+ T cell responses are significantly lower in untreated MS patients. Treatment with GA results in upregulation of these CD8+ responses with restoration to levels observed in healthy individuals. Both CD4+ and CD8+ GA-specific responses are HLA-restricted. GA therapy also induces a change in the cytokine profile of GA-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. This study provides the first direct immunophenotypic evidence, to our knowledge, of GA-specific CD8+ T cell responses and their upregulation during the course of therapy, which may suggest a role for these responses in the immunomodulatory effects of the drug.
Nitin J. Karandikar, Michael P. Crawford, Xiao Yan, Robert B. Ratts, Jason M. Brenchley, David R. Ambrozak, Amy E. Lovett-Racke, Elliot M. Frohman, Peter Stastny, Daniel C. Douek, Richard A. Koup, Michael K. Racke