Suppression of CD8 and CD4 T cells is a hallmark in chronic viral infections, including hepatitis C and HIV. While multiple pathways are known to inhibit CD8 T cells, the host molecules that restrict CD4 T cell responses are less understood. Here, we used inducible and CD4 T cell–specific deletion of the gene encoding the TGF-β receptor during chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection in mice, and determined that TGF-β signaling restricted proliferation and terminal differentiation of antiviral CD4 T cells. TGF-β signaling also inhibited a cytotoxic program that includes granzymes and perforin expression at both early and late stages of infection in vivo and repressed the transcription factor eomesodermin. Overexpression of eomesodermin was sufficient to recapitulate in great part the phenotype of TGF-β receptor–deficient CD4 T cells, while SMAD4 was necessary for CD4 T cell accumulation and differentiation. TGF-β signaling also restricted accumulation and differentiation of CD4 T cells and reduced the expression of cytotoxic molecules in mice and humans infected with other persistent viruses. These data uncovered an eomesodermin-driven CD4 T cell program that is continuously suppressed by TGF-β signaling. During chronic viral infection, this program limits CD4 T cell responses while maintaining CD4 T helper cell identity.
Gavin M. Lewis, Ellen J. Wehrens, Lara Labarta-Bajo, Hendrik Streeck, Elina I. Zuniga
NK cells are innate lymphocytes with protective functions against viral infections and tumor formation. Human NK cells carry inhibitory killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs), which recognize distinct HLAs. NK cells with KIRs for self-HLA molecules acquire superior cytotoxicity against HLA– tumor cells during education for improved missing-self recognition. Here, we reconstituted mice with human hematopoietic cells from donors with homozygous KIR ligands or with a mix of hematopoietic cells from these homozygous donors, allowing assessment of the resulting KIR repertoire and NK cell education. We found that co-reconstitution with 2 KIR ligand–mismatched compartments did not alter the frequency of KIR-expressing NK cells. However, NK cell education was diminished in mice reconstituted with parallel HLA compartments due to a lack of cognate HLA molecules on leukocytes for the corresponding KIRs. This change in NK cell education in mixed human donor–reconstituted mice improved NK cell–mediated immune control of EBV infection, indicating that mixed hematopoietic cell populations could be exploited to improve NK cell reactivity against leukotropic pathogens. Taken together, these findings indicate that leukocytes lacking cognate HLA ligands can disarm KIR+ NK cells in a manner that may decrease HLA– tumor cell recognition but allows for improved NK cell–mediated immune control of a human γ-herpesvirus.
Vanessa Landtwing, Ana Raykova, Gaetana Pezzino, Vivien Béziat, Emanuela Marcenaro, Claudine Graf, Alessandro Moretta, Riccarda Capaul, Andrea Zbinden, Guido Ferlazzo, Karl-Johan Malmberg, Obinna Chijioke, Christian Münz
Increases in eosinophil numbers are associated with infection and allergic diseases, including asthma, but there is also evidence that eosinophils contribute to homeostatic immune processes. In mice, the normal lung contains resident eosinophils (rEos), but their function has not been characterized. Here, we have reported that steady-state pulmonary rEos are IL-5–independent parenchymal Siglec-FintCD62L+CD101lo cells with a ring-shaped nucleus. During house dust mite–induced airway allergy, rEos features remained unchanged, and rEos were accompanied by recruited inflammatory eosinophils (iEos), which were defined as IL-5–dependent peribronchial Siglec-FhiCD62L–CD101hi cells with a segmented nucleus. Gene expression analyses revealed a more regulatory profile for rEos than for iEos, and correspondingly, mice lacking lung rEos showed an increase in Th2 cell responses to inhaled allergens. Such elevation of Th2 responses was linked to the ability of rEos, but not iEos, to inhibit the maturation, and therefore the pro-Th2 function, of allergen-loaded DCs. Finally, we determined that the parenchymal rEos found in nonasthmatic human lungs (Siglec-8+CD62L+IL-3Rlo cells) were phenotypically distinct from the iEos isolated from the sputa of eosinophilic asthmatic patients (Siglec-8+CD62LloIL-3Rhi cells), suggesting that our findings in mice are relevant to humans. In conclusion, our data define lung rEos as a distinct eosinophil subset with key homeostatic functions.
Claire Mesnil, Stéfanie Raulier, Geneviève Paulissen, Xue Xiao, Mark A. Birrell, Dimitri Pirottin, Thibaut Janss, Philipp Starkl, Eve Ramery, Monique Henket, Florence N. Schleich, Marc Radermecker, Kris Thielemans, Laurent Gillet, Marc Thiry, Maria G. Belvisi, Renaud Louis, Christophe Desmet, Thomas Marichal, Fabrice Bureau
Adoptive immunotherapy is a potentially curative therapeutic approach for patients with advanced cancer. However, the in vitro expansion of antitumor T cells prior to infusion inevitably incurs differentiation towards effector T cells and impairs persistence following adoptive transfer. Epigenetic profiles regulate gene expression of key transcription factors over the course of immune cell differentiation, proliferation, and function. Using comprehensive screening of chemical probes with defined epigenetic targets, we found that JQ1, an inhibitor of bromodomain and extra-terminal motif (BET) proteins, maintained CD8+ T cells with functional properties of stem cell–like and central memory T cells. Mechanistically, the BET protein BRD4 directly regulated expression of the transcription factor
Yuki Kagoya, Munehide Nakatsugawa, Yuki Yamashita, Toshiki Ochi, Tingxi Guo, Mark Anczurowski, Kayoko Saso, Marcus O. Butler, Cheryl H. Arrowsmith, Naoto Hirano
M1 and M2 macrophage phenotypes, which mediate proinflammatory and antiinflammatory functions, respectively, represent the extremes of immunoregulatory plasticity in the macrophage population. This plasticity can also result in intermediate macrophage states that support a balance between these opposing functions. In sepsis, M1 macrophages can compensate for hyperinflammation by acquiring an M2-like immunosuppressed status that increases the risk of secondary infection and death. The M1 to M2 macrophage reprogramming that develops during LPS tolerance resembles the pathological antiinflammatory response to sepsis. Here, we determined that p21 regulates macrophage reprogramming by shifting the balance between active p65-p50 and inhibitory p50-p50 NF-κB pathways. p21 deficiency reduced the DNA-binding affinity of the p50-p50 homodimer in LPS-primed and -rechallenged macrophages, impairing their ability to attenuate IFN-β production and acquire an M2-like hyporesponsive status. High p21 levels in sepsis patients correlated with low IFN-β expression, and p21 knockdown in human monocytes corroborated its role in IFN-β regulation. The data demonstrate that p21 adjusts the equilibrium between p65-p50 and p50-p50 NF-κB pathways to mediate macrophage plasticity in LPS tolerance. Identifying p21-related pathways involved in monocyte reprogramming may lead to potential targets for sepsis treatment.
Gorjana Rackov, Enrique Hernández-Jiménez, Rahman Shokri, Lorena Carmona-Rodríguez, Santos Mañes, Melchor Álvarez-Mon, Eduardo López-Collazo, Carlos Martínez-A, Dimitrios Balomenos
Hypoxia occurs in many pathological conditions, including chronic inflammation and tumors, and is considered to be an inhibitor of T cell function. However, robust T cell responses occur at many hypoxic inflammatory sites, suggesting that functions of some subsets are stimulated under low oxygen conditions. Here, we investigated how hypoxic conditions influence human T cell functions and found that, in contrast to naive and central memory T cells (TN and TCM), hypoxia enhances the proliferation, viability, and cytotoxic action of effector memory T cells (TEM). Enhanced TEM expansion in hypoxia corresponded to high hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) expression and glycolytic activity compared with that observed in TN and TCM. We determined that the glycolytic enzyme GAPDH negatively regulates
Yang Xu, Arindam Chaudhury, Ming Zhang, Barbara Savoldo, Leonid S. Metelitsa, John Rodgers, Jason T. Yustein, Joel R. Neilson, Gianpietro Dotti
Successful bacterial pathogens produce an array of virulence factors that allow subversion of the immune system and persistence within the host. For example, uropathogenic
Anna Waldhuber, Manoj Puthia, Andreas Wieser, Christine Cirl, Susanne Dürr, Silke Neumann-Pfeifer, Simone Albrecht, Franziska Römmler, Tina Müller, Yunji Zheng, Sören Schubert, Olaf Groß, Catharina Svanborg, Thomas Miethke
The cross-reactivity of T cells with pathogen- and self-derived peptides has been implicated as a pathway involved in the development of autoimmunity. However, the mechanisms that allow the clonal T cell antigen receptor (TCR) to functionally engage multiple peptide–major histocompatibility complexes (pMHC) are unclear. Here, we studied multiligand discrimination by a human, preproinsulin reactive, MHC class-I–restricted CD8+ T cell clone (1E6) that can recognize over 1 million different peptides. We generated high-resolution structures of the 1E6 TCR bound to 7 altered peptide ligands, including a pathogen-derived peptide that was an order of magnitude more potent than the natural self-peptide. Evaluation of these structures demonstrated that binding was stabilized through a conserved lock-and-key–like minimal binding footprint that enables 1E6 TCR to tolerate vast numbers of substitutions outside of this so-called hotspot. Highly potent antigens of the 1E6 TCR engaged with a strong antipathogen-like binding affinity; this engagement was governed though an energetic switch from an enthalpically to entropically driven interaction compared with the natural autoimmune ligand. Together, these data highlight how T cell cross-reactivity with pathogen-derived antigens might break self-tolerance to induce autoimmune disease.
David K. Cole, Anna M. Bulek, Garry Dolton, Andrea J. Schauenberg, Barbara Szomolay, William Rittase, Andrew Trimby, Prithiviraj Jothikumar, Anna Fuller, Ania Skowera, Jamie Rossjohn, Cheng Zhu, John J. Miles, Mark Peakman, Linda Wooldridge, Pierre J. Rizkallah, Andrew K. Sewell
Cell ablation is a powerful tool for studying cell lineage and/or function; however, current cell-ablation models have limitations. Intermedilysin (ILY), a cytolytic pore-forming toxin that is secreted by
Dechun Feng, Shen Dai, Fengming Liu, Yosuke Ohtake, Zhou Zhou, Hua Wang, Yonggang Zhang, Alison Kearns, Xiao Peng, Faliang Zhu, Umar Hayat, Man Li, Yong He, Mingjiang Xu, Chunling Zhao, Min Cheng, Lining Zhang, Hong Wang, Xiaofeng Yang, Cynthia Ju, Elizabeth C. Bryda, Jennifer Gordon, Kamel Khalili, Wenhui Hu, Shuxin Li, Xuebin Qin, Bin Gao
Immune aging results in progressive loss of both protective immunity and T cell–mediated suppression, thereby conferring susceptibility to a combination of immunodeficiency and chronic inflammatory disease. Here, we determined that older individuals fail to generate immunosuppressive CD8+CCR7+ Tregs, a defect that is even more pronounced in the age-related vasculitic syndrome giant cell arteritis. In young, healthy individuals, CD8+CCR7+ Tregs are localized in T cell zones of secondary lymphoid organs, suppress activation and expansion of CD4 T cells by inhibiting the phosphorylation of membrane-proximal signaling molecules, and effectively inhibit proliferative expansion of CD4 T cells in vitro and in vivo. We identified deficiency of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) as the molecular underpinning of CD8 Treg failure in the older individuals and in patients with giant cell arteritis. CD8 Tregs suppress by releasing exosomes that carry preassembled NOX2 membrane clusters and are taken up by CD4 T cells. Overexpression of NOX2 in aged CD8 Tregs promptly restored suppressive function. Together, our data support NOX2 as a critical component of the suppressive machinery of CD8 Tregs and suggest that repairing NOX2 deficiency in these cells may protect older individuals from tissue-destructive inflammatory disease, such as large-vessel vasculitis.
Zhenke Wen, Yasuhiro Shimojima, Tsuyoshi Shirai, Yinyin Li, Jihang Ju, Zhen Yang, Lu Tian, Jörg J. Goronzy, Cornelia M. Weyand
Inflammasomes form as the result of the intracellular presence of danger-associated molecular patterns and mediate the release of active IL-1β, which influences a variety of inflammatory responses. Excessive inflammasome activation results in severe inflammatory conditions, but physiological IL-1β secretion is necessary for intestinal homeostasis. Here, we have described a mechanism of NLRP3 inflammasome regulation by tyrosine phosphorylation of NLRP3 at Tyr861. We demonstrated that protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor 22 (PTPN22), variants in which are associated with chronic inflammatory disorders, dephosphorylates NLRP3 upon inflammasome induction, allowing efficient NLRP3 activation and subsequent IL-1β release. In murine models, PTPN22 deficiency resulted in pronounced colitis, increased NLRP3 phosphorylation, but reduced levels of mature IL-1β. Conversely, patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that carried an autoimmunity-associated PTPN22 variant had increased IL-1β levels. Together, our results identify tyrosine phosphorylation as an important regulatory mechanism for NLRP3 that prevents aberrant inflammasome activation.
Marianne R. Spalinger, Stephanie Kasper, Claudia Gottier, Silvia Lang, Kirstin Atrott, Stephan R. Vavricka, Sylvie Scharl, Petrus M. Gutte, Markus G. Grütter, Hans-Dietmar Beer, Emmanuel Contassot, Andrew C. Chan, Xuezhi Dai, David J. Rawlings, Florian Mair, Burkhard Becher, Werner Falk, Michael Fried, Gerhard Rogler, Michael Scharl
Autoimmune diseases affect 5% to 8% of the population, and females are more susceptible to these diseases than males. Here, we analyzed human thymic transcriptome and revealed sex-associated differences in the expression of tissue-specific antigens that are controlled by the autoimmune regulator (AIRE), a key factor in central tolerance. We hypothesized that the level of AIRE is linked to sexual dimorphism susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. In human and mouse thymus, females expressed less AIRE (mRNA and protein) than males after puberty. These results were confirmed in purified murine thymic epithelial cells (TECs). We also demonstrated that AIRE expression is related to sexual hormones, as male castration decreased AIRE thymic expression and estrogen receptor α–deficient mice did not show a sex disparity for AIRE expression. Moreover, estrogen treatment resulted in downregulation of AIRE expression in cultured human TECs, human thymic tissue grafted to immunodeficient mice, and murine fetal thymus organ cultures.
Nadine Dragin, Jacky Bismuth, Géraldine Cizeron-Clairac, Maria Grazia Biferi, Claire Berthault, Alain Serraf, Rémi Nottin, David Klatzmann, Ana Cumano, Martine Barkats, Rozen Le Panse, Sonia Berrih-Aknin
Adoptive immunotherapy with regulatory T cells (Tregs) is a promising treatment for allograft rejection and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Emerging data indicate that, compared with polyclonal Tregs, disease-relevant antigen-specific Tregs may have numerous advantages, such as a need for fewer cells and reduced risk of nonspecific immune suppression. Current methods to generate alloantigen-specific Tregs rely on expansion with allogeneic antigen-presenting cells, which requires access to donor and recipient cells and multiple MHC mismatches. The successful use of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) for the generation of antigen-specific effector T cells suggests that a similar approach could be used to generate alloantigen-specific Tregs. Here, we have described the creation of an HLA-A2–specific CAR (A2-CAR) and its application in the generation of alloantigen-specific human Tregs. In vitro, A2-CAR–expressing Tregs maintained their expected phenotype and suppressive function before, during, and after A2-CAR–mediated stimulation. In mouse models, human A2-CAR–expressing Tregs were superior to Tregs expressing an irrelevant CAR at preventing xenogeneic GVHD caused by HLA-A2+ T cells. Together, our results demonstrate that use of CAR technology to generate potent, functional, and stable alloantigen-specific human Tregs markedly enhances their therapeutic potential in transplantation and sets the stage for using this approach for making antigen-specific Tregs for therapy of multiple diseases.
Katherine G. MacDonald, Romy E. Hoeppli, Qing Huang, Jana Gillies, Dan S. Luciani, Paul C. Orban, Raewyn Broady, Megan K. Levings
Alloreactive donor T cells are the driving force in the induction of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), yet little is known about T cell metabolism in response to alloantigens after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Here, we have demonstrated that donor T cells undergo metabolic reprograming after allogeneic HCT. Specifically, we employed a murine allogeneic BM transplant model and determined that T cells switch from fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) and pyruvate oxidation via the tricarboxylic (TCA) cycle to aerobic glycolysis, thereby increasing dependence upon glutaminolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway. Glycolysis was required for optimal function of alloantigen-activated T cells and induction of GVHD, as inhibition of glycolysis by targeting mTORC1 or 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3) ameliorated GVHD mortality and morbidity. Together, our results indicate that donor T cells use glycolysis as the predominant metabolic process after allogeneic HCT and suggest that glycolysis has potential as a therapeutic target for the control of GVHD.
Hung D. Nguyen, Shilpak Chatterjee, Kelley M.K. Haarberg, Yongxia Wu, David Bastian, Jessica Heinrichs, Jianing Fu, Anusara Daenthanasanmak, Steven Schutt, Sharad Shrestha, Chen Liu, Honglin Wang, Hongbo Chi, Shikhar Mehrotra, Xue-Zhong Yu
Avian H7N9 influenza viruses are group 2 influenza A viruses that have been identified as the etiologic agent for a current major outbreak that began in China in 2013 and may pose a pandemic threat. Here, we examined the human H7-reactive antibody response in 75 recipients of a monovalent inactivated A/Shanghai/02/2013 H7N9 vaccine. After 2 doses of vaccine, the majority of donors had memory B cells that secreted IgGs specific for H7 HA, with dominant responses against single HA subtypes, although frequencies of H7-reactive B cells ranged widely between donors. We isolated 12 naturally occurring mAbs with low half-maximal effective concentrations for binding, 5 of which possessed neutralizing and HA-inhibiting activities. The 5 neutralizing mAbs exhibited narrow breadth of reactivity with influenza H7 strains. Epitope-mapping studies using neutralization escape mutant analysis, deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, and x-ray crystallography revealed that these neutralizing mAbs bind near the receptor-binding pocket on HA. All 5 neutralizing mAbs possessed low numbers of somatic mutations, suggesting the clones arose from naive B cells. The most potent mAb, H7.167, was tested as a prophylactic treatment in a mouse intranasal virus challenge study, and systemic administration of the mAb markedly reduced viral lung titers.
Natalie J. Thornburg, Heng Zhang, Sandhya Bangaru, Gopal Sapparapu, Nurgun Kose, Rebecca M. Lampley, Robin G. Bombardi, Yingchun Yu, Stephen Graham, Andre Branchizio, Sandra M. Yoder, Michael T. Rock, C. Buddy Creech, Kathryn M. Edwards, David Lee, Sheng Li, Ian A. Wilson, Adolfo García-Sastre, Randy A. Albrecht, James E. Crowe Jr.
Acute and chronic tissue injury results in the generation of a myriad of environmental cues that macrophages respond to by changing their phenotype and function. This phenotypic regulation is critical for controlling tissue inflammation and resolution. Here, we have identified the adaptor protein disabled homolog 2 (DAB2) as a regulator of phenotypic switching in macrophages.
Samantha E. Adamson, Rachael Griffiths, Radim Moravec, Subramanian Senthivinayagam, Garren Montgomery, Wenshu Chen, Jenny Han, Poonam R. Sharma, Garrett R. Mullins, Stacey A. Gorski, Jonathan A. Cooper, Alexandra Kadl, Kyle Enfield, Thomas J. Braciale, Thurl E. Harris, Norbert Leitinger
The generation of naive T cells is dependent on thymic output, but in adults, the naive T cell pool is primarily maintained by peripheral proliferation. Naive T cells have long been regarded as relatively quiescent cells; however, it was recently shown that IL-8 production is a signatory effector function of naive T cells, at least in newborns. How this functional signature relates to naive T cell dynamics and aging is unknown. Using a cohort of children and adolescents who underwent neonatal thymectomy, we demonstrate that the naive CD4+ T cell compartment in healthy humans is functionally heterogeneous and that this functional diversity is lost after neonatal thymectomy. Thymic tissue regeneration later in life resulted in functional restoration of the naive T cell compartment, implicating the thymus as having functional regenerative capacity. Together, these data shed further light on functional differentiation within the naive T cell compartment and the importance of the thymus in human naive T cell homeostasis and premature aging. In addition, these results affect and alter our current understanding on the identification of truly naive T cells and recent thymic emigrants.
Theo van den Broek, Eveline M. Delemarre, Willemijn J.M. Janssen, Rutger A.J. Nievelstein, Jasper C. Broen, Kiki Tesselaar, Jose A.M. Borghans, Edward E.S. Nieuwenhuis, Berent J. Prakken, Michal Mokry, Nicolaas J.G. Jansen, Femke van Wijk
T regulatory cells (Tregs) control immune homeostasis by preventing inappropriate responses to self and nonharmful foreign antigens. Tregs use multiple mechanisms to control immune responses, all of which require these cells to be near their targets of suppression; however, it is not known how Treg-to-target proximity is controlled. Here, we found that Tregs attract CD4+ and CD8+ T cells by producing chemokines. Specifically, Tregs produced both CCL3 and CCL4 in response to stimulation, and production of these chemokines was critical for migration of target T cells, as Tregs from
Scott J. Patterson, Anne M. Pesenacker, Adele Y. Wang, Jana Gillies, Majid Mojibian, Kim Morishita, Rusung Tan, Timothy J. Kieffer, C. Bruce Verchere, Constadina Panagiotopoulos, Megan K. Levings
The immunoregulatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is encoded in a functionally polymorphic locus that is linked to the susceptibility of autoimmune and infectious diseases. The
Jie Yao, Lin Leng, Maor Sauler, Weiling Fu, Junsong Zheng, Yi Zhang, Xin Du, Xiaoqing Yu, Patty Lee, Richard Bucala
In vivo protection by antimicrobial neutralizing Abs can require the contribution of effector functions mediated by Fc-Fcγ receptor (Fc-FcγR) interactions for optimal efficacy. In influenza, broadly neutralizing anti-hemagglutinin (anti-HA) stalk mAbs require Fc-FcγR interactions to mediate in vivo protection, but strain-specific anti-HA head mAbs do not. Whether this rule applies only to anti-stalk Abs or is applicable to any broadly neutralizing Ab (bNAb) against influenza is unknown. Here, we characterized the contribution of Fc-FcγR interactions during in vivo protection for a panel of 13 anti-HA mAbs, including bNAbs and non-neutralizing Abs, against both the stalk and head domains. All classes of broadly binding anti-HA mAbs required Fc-FcγR interactions to provide protection in vivo, including those mAbs that bind the HA head and those that do not neutralize virus in vitro. Further, a broadly neutralizing anti-neuraminidase (anti-NA) mAb also required FcγRs to provide protection in vivo, but a strain-specific anti-NA mAb did not. Thus, these findings suggest that the breadth of reactivity of anti-influenza Abs, regardless of their epitope, necessitates interactions with FcγRs on effector cell populations to mediate in vivo protection. These findings will guide the design of antiviral Ab therapeutics and inform vaccine design to elicit Abs with optimal binding properties and effector functions.
David J. DiLillo, Peter Palese, Patrick C. Wilson, Jeffrey V. Ravetch