Stem cell factor (SCF) is a molecule with known proliferative effects on hematopoietic cells. More recent studies suggest that this molecule may also have effects on cellular differentiation and proliferation in other types of cells. The current investigations demonstrate that there is a large reservoir of SCF in the liver, that hepatic SCF levels change dramatically following partial hepatectomy in mice, and that SCF blockade, either by administration of anti-SCF antibodies or by using genetically altered, SCF-deficient mice, inhibits hepatocyte proliferation after partial hepatectomy; if SCF is replaced in the genetically SCF-deficient mice after partial hepatectomy, hepatocyte proliferation is restored to that seen in WT animals. Furthermore, SCF administration to IL-6 knockout mice also restores hepatocyte proliferation to normal. In vitro studies using primary mouse hepatocytes demonstrate that SCF causes hepatocyte proliferation and is induced by IL-6 and that treatment with anti-SCF antibodies inhibits IL-6–induced hepatocyte proliferation. Further in vivo studies in IL-6 knockout mice demonstrate that SCF administration to these animals increases p-stat3 levels, suggesting that the SCF-induced increase in hepatocyte proliferation in this system is stat3-mediated.
Xiaodan Ren, Cory Hogaboam, Audra Carpenter, Lisa Colletti
Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a pro-oxidant and fibrogenic cytokine. We investigated the role of NADPH oxidase in Ang II–induced effects in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), a fibrogenic cell type. Human HSCs express mRNAs of key components of nonphagocytic NADPH oxidase. Ang II phosphorylated p47phox, a regulatory subunit of NADPH oxidase, and induced reactive oxygen species formation via NADPH oxidase activity. Ang II phosphorylated AKT and MAPKs and increased AP-1 DNA binding in a redox-sensitive manner. Ang II stimulated DNA synthesis, cell migration, procollagen α1(I) mRNA expression, and secretion of TGF-β1 and inflammatory cytokines. These effects were attenuated by N-acetylcysteine and diphenylene iodonium, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor. Moreover, Ang II induced upregulation of genes potentially involved in hepatic wound-healing response in a redox-sensitive manner, as assessed by microarray analysis. HSCs isolated from p47phox–/– mice displayed a blunted response to Ang II compared with WT cells. We also assessed the role of NADPH oxidase in experimental liver fibrosis. After bile duct ligation, p47phox–/– mice showed attenuated liver injury and fibrosis compared with WT counterparts. Moreover, expression of smooth muscle α-actin and expression of TGF-β1 were reduced in p47phox–/– mice. Thus, NADPH oxidase mediates the actions of Ang II on HSCs and plays a critical role in liver fibrogenesis.
Ramón Bataller, Robert F. Schwabe, Youkyung H. Choi, Liu Yang, Yong Han Paik, Jeffrey Lindquist, Ting Qian, Robert Schoonhoven, Curt H. Hagedorn, John J. Lemasters, David A. Brenner
Although a lysosomal, cathepsin B–dependent (Ctsb-dependent) pathway of apoptosis has been described, the contribution of this pathway to tissue damage remains unclear. Our aim was to ascertain if Ctsb inactivation attenuates liver injury, inflammation, and fibrogenesis after bile duct ligation (BDL). In 3-day BDL mice, hepatocyte apoptosis, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values were reduced in Ctsb–/– versus Ctsb+/+ animals. Likewise, R-3032 (a Ctsb inhibitor) also reduced these parameters in BDL WT mice. Both genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of Ctsb in the BDL mouse reduced (a) hepatic inflammation, as assessed by transcripts for CXC chemokines and neutrophil infiltration, and (b) fibrogenesis, as assessed by transcripts for stellate cell activation and sirius red staining for hepatic collagen deposition. These differences could not be ascribed to alterations in cholestasis. These findings support a prominent role for the lysosomal pathway of apoptosis in tissue injury and link apoptosis to inflammation and fibrogenesis. Ctsb inhibition may be therapeutic in liver diseases.
Ali Canbay, Maria Eugenia Guicciardi, Hajime Higuchi, Ariel Feldstein, Steven F. Bronk, Robert Rydzewski, Makiko Taniai, Gregory J. Gores
Adiponectin has recently been shown to be a promising candidate for the treatment of obesity-associated metabolic syndromes. Replenishment of recombinant adiponectin in mice can decrease hyperglycemia, reverse insulin resistance, and cause sustained weight loss without affecting food intake. Here we report its potential roles in alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases in mice. Circulating concentrations of adiponectin decreased significantly following chronic consumption of high-fat ethanol-containing food. Delivery of recombinant adiponectin into these mice dramatically alleviated hepatomegaly and steatosis (fatty liver) and also significantly attenuated inflammation and the elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase. These therapeutic effects resulted partly from the ability of adiponectin to increase carnitine palmitoyltransferase I activity and enhance hepatic fatty acid oxidation, while it decreased the activities of two key enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis, including acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase. Furthermore, adiponectin treatment could suppress the hepatic production of TNF-α and plasma concentrations of this proinflammatory cytokine. Adiponectin was also effective in ameliorating hepatomegaly, steatosis, and alanine aminotransferase abnormality associated with nonalcoholic obese, ob/ob mice. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism of adiponectin action and suggest a potential clinical application of adiponectin and its agonists in the treatment of liver diseases.
Aimin Xu, Yu Wang, Hussila Keshaw, Lance Yi Xu, Karen S.L. Lam, Garth J.S. Cooper
Feng Hong, Barbara Jaruga, Won Ho Kim, Svetlana Radaeva, Osama N. El-Assal, Zhigang Tian, Van-Anh Nguyen, Bin Gao
Lin Wang, Carol J. Soroka, James L. Boyer