Strategies aimed at mimicking or enhancing the action of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) therapeutically improve glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS); however, it is not clear whether GLP-1 directly drives insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. Here, we examined the mechanisms by which GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion in mouse and human islets. We found that GLP-1 enhances GSIS at a half-maximal effective concentration of 0.4 pM. Moreover, we determined that GLP-1 activates PLC, which increases submembrane diacylglycerol and thereby activates PKC, resulting in membrane depolarization and increased action potential firing and subsequent stimulation of insulin secretion. The depolarizing effect of GLP-1 on electrical activity was mimicked by the PKC activator PMA, occurred without activation of PKA, and persisted in the presence of PKA inhibitors, the KATP channel blocker tolbutamide, and the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker isradipine; however, depolarization was abolished by lowering extracellular Na+. The PKC-dependent effect of GLP-1 on membrane potential and electrical activity was mediated by activation of Na+-permeable TRPM4 and TRPM5 channels by mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ from thapsigargin-sensitive Ca2+ stores. Concordantly, GLP-1 effects were negligible in
Makoto Shigeto, Reshma Ramracheya, Andrei I. Tarasov, Chae Young Cha, Margarita V. Chibalina, Benoit Hastoy, Koenraad Philippaert, Thomas Reinbothe, Nils Rorsman, Albert Salehi, William R. Sones, Elisa Vergari, Cathryn Weston, Julia Gorelik, Masashi Katsura, Viacheslav O. Nikolaev, Rudi Vennekens, Manuela Zaccolo, Antony Galione, Paul R.V. Johnson, Kohei Kaku, Graham Ladds, Patrik Rorsman
In mice, FGF21 is rapidly induced by fasting, mediates critical aspects of the adaptive starvation response, and displays a number of positive metabolic properties when administered pharmacologically. In humans, however, fasting does not consistently increase FGF21, suggesting a possible evolutionary divergence in FGF21 function. Moreover, many key aspects of FGF21 function in mice have been identified in the context of transgenic overexpression or administration of supraphysiologic doses, rather than in a physiologic setting. Here, we explored the dynamics and function of FGF21 in human volunteers during a 10-day fast. Unlike mice, which show an increase in circulating FGF21 after only 6 hours, human subjects did not have a notable surge in FGF21 until 7 to 10 days of fasting. Moreover, we determined that FGF21 induction was associated with decreased thermogenesis and adiponectin, an observation that directly contrasts with previous reports based on supraphysiologic dosing. Additionally, FGF21 levels increased after ketone induction, demonstrating that endogenous FGF21 does not drive starvation-mediated ketogenesis in humans. Instead, a longitudinal analysis of biologically relevant variables identified serum transaminases — markers of tissue breakdown — as predictors of FGF21. These data establish FGF21 as a fasting-induced hormone in humans and indicate that FGF21 contributes to the late stages of adaptive starvation, when it may regulate the utilization of fuel derived from tissue breakdown.
Pouneh K. Fazeli, Mingyue Lun, Soo M. Kim, Miriam A. Bredella, Spenser Wright, Yang Zhang, Hang Lee, Ciprian Catana, Anne Klibanski, Parth Patwari, Matthew L. Steinhauser
Ovarian development and maintenance are poorly understood; however, diseases that affect these processes can offer insights into the underlying mechanisms. XX female gonadal dysgenesis (XX-GD) is a rare, genetically heterogeneous disorder that is characterized by underdeveloped, dysfunctional ovaries, with subsequent lack of spontaneous pubertal development, primary amenorrhea, uterine hypoplasia, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Here, we report an extended consanguineous family of Palestinian origin, in which 4 females exhibited XX-GD. Using homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing, we identified a recessive missense mutation in nucleoporin-107 (
Ariella Weinberg-Shukron, Paul Renbaum, Rachel Kalifa, Sharon Zeligson, Ziva Ben-Neriah, Amatzia Dreifuss, Amal Abu-Rayyan, Noa Maatuk, Nilly Fardian, Dina Rekler, Moien Kanaan, Abraham O. Samson, Ephrat Levy-Lahad, Offer Gerlitz, David Zangen
Alterations in insulin granule exocytosis and endocytosis are paramount to pancreatic β cell dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. Here, using temporally controlled gene ablation specifically in β cells in mice, we identified an essential role of dynamin 2 GTPase in preserving normal biphasic insulin secretion and blood glucose homeostasis. Dynamin 2 deletion in β cells caused glucose intolerance and substantial reduction of the second phase of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS); however, mutant β cells still maintained abundant insulin granules, with no signs of cell surface expansion. Compared with control β cells, real-time capacitance measurements demonstrated that exocytosis-endocytosis coupling was less efficient but not abolished; clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) was severely impaired at the step of membrane fission, which resulted in accumulation of clathrin-coated endocytic intermediates on the plasma membrane. Moreover, dynamin 2 ablation in β cells led to striking reorganization and enhancement of actin filaments, and insulin granule recruitment and mobilization were impaired at the later stage of GSIS. Together, our results demonstrate that dynamin 2 regulates insulin secretory capacity and dynamics in vivo through a mechanism depending on CME and F-actin remodeling. Moreover, this study indicates a potential pathophysiological link between endocytosis and diabetes mellitus.
Fan Fan, Chen Ji, Yumei Wu, Shawn M. Ferguson, Natalia Tamarina, Louis H. Philipson, Xuelin Lou
Although stem cell populations mediate regeneration of rapid turnover tissues, such as skin, blood, and gut, a stem cell reservoir has not been identified for some slower turnover tissues, such as the pancreatic islet. Despite lacking identifiable stem cells, murine pancreatic β cell number expands in response to an increase in insulin demand. Lineage tracing shows that new β cells are generated from proliferation of mature, differentiated β cells; however, the mechanism by which these mature cells sense systemic insulin demand and initiate a proliferative response remains unknown. Here, we identified the β cell unfolded protein response (UPR), which senses insulin production, as a regulator of β cell proliferation. Using genetic and physiologic models, we determined that among the population of β cells, those with an active UPR are more likely to proliferate. Moreover, subthreshold endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) drove insulin demand–induced β cell proliferation, through activation of ATF6. We also confirmed that the UPR regulates proliferation of human β cells, suggesting that therapeutic UPR modulation has potential to expand β cell mass in people at risk for diabetes. Together, this work defines a stem cell–independent model of tissue homeostasis, in which differentiated secretory cells use the UPR sensor to adapt organ size to meet demand.
Rohit B. Sharma, Amy C. O’Donnell, Rachel E. Stamateris, Binh Ha, Karen M. McCloskey, Paul R. Reynolds, Peter Arvan, Laura C. Alonso
Insulin secretion from β cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans controls metabolic homeostasis and is impaired in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Increases in blood glucose trigger insulin release by closing ATP-sensitive K+ channels, depolarizing β cells, and opening voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels to elicit insulin exocytosis. However, one or more additional pathway(s) amplify the secretory response, likely at the distal exocytotic site. The mitochondrial export of isocitrate and engagement with cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDc) may be one key pathway, but the mechanism linking this to insulin secretion and its role in T2D have not been defined. Here, we show that the ICDc-dependent generation of NADPH and subsequent glutathione (GSH) reduction contribute to the amplification of insulin exocytosis via sentrin/SUMO-specific protease-1 (SENP1). In human T2D and an in vitro model of human islet dysfunction, the glucose-dependent amplification of exocytosis was impaired and could be rescued by introduction of signaling intermediates from this pathway. Moreover, islet-specific
Mourad Ferdaoussi, Xiaoqing Dai, Mette V. Jensen, Runsheng Wang, Brett S. Peterson, Chao Huang, Olga Ilkayeva, Nancy Smith, Nathanael Miller, Catherine Hajmrle, Aliya F. Spigelman, Robert C. Wright, Gregory Plummer, Kunimasa Suzuki, James P. Mackay, Martijn van de Bunt, Anna L. Gloyn, Terence E. Ryan, Lisa D. Norquay, M. Julia Brosnan, Jeff K. Trimmer, Timothy P. Rolph, Richard G. Kibbey, Jocelyn E. Manning Fox, William F. Colmers, Orian S. Shirihai, P. Darrell Neufer, Edward T.H. Yeh, Christopher B. Newgard, Patrick E. MacDonald
Dietary iron supplementation is associated with increased appetite. Here, we investigated the effect of iron on the hormone leptin, which regulates food intake and energy homeostasis. Serum ferritin was negatively associated with serum leptin in a cohort of patients with metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the same inverse correlation was observed in mice fed a high-iron diet. Adipocyte-specific loss of the iron exporter ferroportin resulted in iron loading and decreased leptin, while decreased levels of hepcidin in a murine hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) model increased adipocyte ferroportin expression, decreased adipocyte iron, and increased leptin. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with iron decreased leptin mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. We found that iron negatively regulates leptin transcription via cAMP-responsive element binding protein activation (CREB activation) and identified 2 potential CREB-binding sites in the mouse leptin promoter region. Mutation of both sites completely blocked the effect of iron on promoter activity. ChIP analysis revealed that binding of phosphorylated CREB is enriched at these two sites in iron-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared with untreated cells. Consistent with the changes in leptin, dietary iron content was also directly related to food intake, independently of weight. These findings indicate that levels of dietary iron play an important role in regulation of appetite and metabolism through CREB-dependent modulation of leptin expression.
Yan Gao, Zhonggang Li, J. Scott Gabrielsen, Judith A. Simcox, Soh-hyun Lee, Deborah Jones, Bob Cooksey, Gregory Stoddard, William T. Cefalu, Donald A. McClain
Diarrhea is one of the troublesome complications of diabetes, and the underlying causes of this problem are complex. Here, we investigated whether altered electrolyte transport contributes to diabetic diarrhea. We found that the expression of Na+/H+ exchanger NHE3 and several scaffold proteins, including NHE3 regulatory factors (NHERFs), inositol trisphosphate (IP3) receptor-binding protein released with IP3 (IRBIT), and ezrin, was decreased in the intestinal brush border membrane (BBM) of mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Treatment of diabetic mice with insulin restored intestinal NHE3 activity and fluid absorption. Molecular analysis revealed that NHE3, NHERF1, IRBIT, and ezrin form macrocomplexes, which are perturbed under diabetic conditions, and insulin administration reconstituted these macrocomplexes and restored NHE3 expression in the BBM. Silencing of NHERF1 or IRBIT prevented NHE3 trafficking to the BBM and insulin-dependent NHE3 activation. IRBIT facilitated the interaction of NHE3 with NHERF1 via protein kinase D2–dependent phosphorylation. Insulin stimulated ezrin phosphorylation, which enhanced the interaction of ezrin with NHERF1, IRBIT, and NHE3. Additionally, oral administration of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) increased NHE3 activity and fluid absorption in diabetic mice via an insulin-independent pathway. Together, these findings indicate the importance of NHE3 in diabetic diarrhea and suggest LPA administration as a potential therapeutic strategy for management of diabetic diarrhea.
Peijian He, Luqing Zhao, Lixin Zhu, Edward J. Weinman, Roberto De Giorgio, Michael Koval, Shanthi Srinivasan, C. Chris Yun
Rare functional variants of ankyrin-B have been implicated in human disease, including hereditary cardiac arrhythmia and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here, we developed murine models to evaluate the metabolic consequences of these alterations in vivo. Specifically, we generated knockin mice that express either the human ankyrin-B variant R1788W, which is present in 0.3% of North Americans of mixed European descent and is associated with T2D, or L1622I, which is present in 7.5% of African Americans. Young
Damaris N. Lorenzo, Jane A. Healy, Janell Hostettler, Jonathan Davis, Jiayu Yang, Chao Wang, Hans Ewald Hohmeier, Mingjie Zhang, Vann Bennett
Pancreatic β cells secrete insulin in response to postprandial increases in glucose levels to prevent hyperglycemia and inhibit insulin secretion under fasting conditions to protect against hypoglycemia. β cells lack this functional capability at birth and acquire glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) during neonatal life. Here, we have shown that during postnatal life, the de novo DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A initiates a metabolic program by repressing key genes, thereby enabling the coupling of insulin secretion to glucose levels. In a murine model, β cell–specific deletion of
Sangeeta Dhawan, Shuen-ing Tschen, Chun Zeng, Tingxia Guo, Matthias Hebrok, Aleksey Matveyenko, Anil Bhushan
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a worldwide heath problem that is characterized by insulin resistance and the eventual loss of β cell function. As recent studies have shown that loss of ribosomal protein (RP) S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) increases systemic insulin sensitivity, S6K1 inhibitors are being pursued as potential agents for improving insulin resistance. Here we found that S6K1 deficiency in mice also leads to decreased β cell growth, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and impaired placental development. IUGR is a common complication of human pregnancy that limits the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus, leading to diminished embryonic β cell growth and the onset of T2DM later in life. However, restoration of placental development and the rescue of IUGR by tetraploid embryo complementation did not restore β cell size or insulin levels in
Sung Hee Um, Melanie Sticker-Jantscheff, Gia Cac Chau, Kristina Vintersten, Matthias Mueller, Yann-Gael Gangloff, Ralf H. Adams, Jean-Francois Spetz, Lynda Elghazi, Paul T. Pfluger, Mario Pende, Ernesto Bernal-Mizrachi, Albert Tauler, Matthias H. Tschöp, George Thomas, Sara C. Kozma
Individuals with an inherited deficiency in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) have impaired sexual reproduction. Previous genetic linkage studies and sequencing of plausible gene candidates have identified mutations associated with inherited GnRH deficiency, but the small number of affected families and limited success in validating candidates have impeded genetic diagnoses for most patients. Using a combination of exome sequencing and computational modeling, we have identified a shared point mutation in semaphorin 3E (
Anna Cariboni, Valentina André, Sophie Chauvet, Daniele Cassatella, Kathryn Davidson, Alessia Caramello, Alessandro Fantin, Pierre Bouloux, Fanny Mann, Christiana Ruhrberg
Pituitary somatotroph adenomas result in dysregulated growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion and acromegaly; however, regulatory mechanisms that promote GH hypersecretion remain elusive. Here, we provide evidence that STAT3 directly induces somatotroph tumor cell GH. Evaluation of pituitary tumors revealed that STAT3 expression was enhanced in human GH-secreting adenomas compared with that in nonsecreting pituitary tumors. Moreover, STAT3 and GH expression were concordant in a somatotroph adenoma tissue array. Promoter and expression analysis in a GH-secreting rat cell line (GH3) revealed that STAT3 specifically binds the
Cuiqi Zhou, Yonghui Jiao, Renzhi Wang, Song-Guang Ren, Kolja Wawrowsky, Shlomo Melmed
A complex neural network regulates body weight and energy balance, and dysfunction in the communication between the gut and this neural network is associated with metabolic diseases, such as obesity. The stomach-derived hormone ghrelin stimulates appetite through interactions with neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH). Here, we evaluated the physiological and neurobiological contribution of ghrelin during development by specifically blocking ghrelin action during early postnatal development in mice. Ghrelin blockade in neonatal mice resulted in enhanced ARH neural projections and long-term metabolic effects, including increased body weight, visceral fat, and blood glucose levels and decreased leptin sensitivity. In addition, chronic administration of ghrelin during postnatal life impaired the normal development of ARH projections and caused metabolic dysfunction. Consistent with these observations, direct exposure of postnatal ARH neuronal explants to ghrelin blunted axonal growth and blocked the neurotrophic effect of the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin. Moreover, chronic ghrelin exposure in neonatal mice also attenuated leptin-induced STAT3 signaling in ARH neurons. Collectively, these data reveal that ghrelin plays an inhibitory role in the development of hypothalamic neural circuits and suggest that proper expression of ghrelin during neonatal life is pivotal for lifelong metabolic regulation.
Sophie M. Steculorum, Gustav Collden, Berengere Coupe, Sophie Croizier, Sarah Lockie, Zane B. Andrews, Florian Jarosch, Sven Klussmann, Sebastien G. Bouret
The current treatment for patients with hypothyroidism is levothyroxine (L-T4) along with normalization of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). However, normalization of serum TSH with L-T4 monotherapy results in relatively low serum 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3) and high serum thyroxine/T3 (T4/T3) ratio. In the hypothalamus-pituitary dyad as well as the rest of the brain, the majority of T3 present is generated locally by T4 deiodination via the type 2 deiodinase (D2); this pathway is self-limited by ubiquitination of D2 by the ubiquitin ligase WSB-1. Here, we determined that tissue-specific differences in D2 ubiquitination account for the high T4/T3 serum ratio in adult thyroidectomized (Tx) rats chronically implanted with subcutaneous L-T4 pellets. While L-T4 administration decreased whole-body D2-dependent T4 conversion to T3, D2 activity in the hypothalamus was only minimally affected by L-T4. In vivo studies in mice harboring an astrocyte-specific
Joao Pedro Werneck de Castro, Tatiana L. Fonseca, Cintia B. Ueta, Elizabeth A. McAninch, Sherine Abdalla, Gabor Wittmann, Ronald M. Lechan, Balazs Gereben, Antonio C. Bianco
Glucagon-like peptide-1–based (GLP-1–based) therapies improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. While these agents augment insulin secretion, they do not mimic the physiological meal-related rise and fall of GLP-1 concentrations. Here, we tested the hypothesis that increasing the number of intestinal L cells, which produce GLP-1, is an alternative strategy to augment insulin responses and improve glucose tolerance. Blocking the NOTCH signaling pathway with the γ-secretase inhibitor dibenzazepine increased the number of L cells in intestinal organoid–based mouse and human culture systems and augmented glucose-stimulated GLP-1 secretion. In a high-fat diet–fed mouse model of impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes, dibenzazepine administration increased L cell numbers in the intestine, improved the early insulin response to glucose, and restored glucose tolerance. Dibenzazepine also increased K cell numbers, resulting in increased gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) secretion. Using a GLP-1 receptor antagonist, we determined that the insulinotropic effect of dibenzazepine was mediated through an increase in GLP-1 signaling. Together, our data indicate that modulation of the development of incretin-producing cells in the intestine has potential as a therapeutic strategy to improve glycemic control.
Natalia Petersen, Frank Reimann, Johan H. van Es, Bernard M. van den Berg, Chantal Kroone, Ramona Pais, Erik Jansen, Hans Clevers, Fiona M. Gribble, Eelco J.P. de Koning
The brain relies on a constant supply of glucose, its primary fuel, for optimal function. A taste-independent mechanism within the CNS that promotes glucose delivery to the brain has been postulated to maintain glucose homeostasis; however, evidence for such a mechanism is lacking. Here, we determined that glucokinase activity within the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus is involved in regulation of dietary glucose intake. In fasted rats, glucokinase activity was specifically increased in the arcuate nucleus but not other regions of the hypothalamus. Moreover, pharmacologic and genetic activation of glucokinase in the arcuate nucleus of rodent models increased glucose ingestion, while decreased arcuate nucleus glucokinase activity reduced glucose intake. Pharmacologic targeting of potential downstream glucokinase effectors revealed that ATP-sensitive potassium channel and P/Q calcium channel activity are required for glucokinase-mediated glucose intake. Additionally, altered glucokinase activity affected release of the orexigenic neurotransmitter neuropeptide Y in response to glucose. Together, our results suggest that glucokinase activity in the arcuate nucleus specifically regulates glucose intake and that appetite for glucose is an important driver of overall food intake. Arcuate nucleus glucokinase activation may represent a CNS mechanism that underlies the oft-described phenomena of the “sweet tooth” and carbohydrate craving.
Syed Hussain, Errol Richardson, Yue Ma, Christopher Holton, Ivan De Backer, Niki Buckley, Waljit Dhillo, Gavin Bewick, Shuai Zhang, David Carling, Steve Bloom, James Gardiner
Levels of pituitary growth hormone (GH), a metabolic homeostatic factor with strong lipolytic activity, are decreased in obese individuals. GH declines prior to the onset of weight gain in response to excess caloric intake and hyperinsulinemia; however, the mechanism by which GH is reduced is not clear. We used transgenic mice expressing the human GH (hGH) gene,
Hana Vakili, Yan Jin, Peter A. Cattini
Liraglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog marketed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Besides lowering blood glucose, liraglutide also reduces body weight. It is not fully understood how liraglutide induces weight loss or to what degree liraglutide acts directly in the brain. Here, we determined that liraglutide does not activate GLP-1–producing neurons in the hindbrain, and liraglutide-dependent body weight reduction in rats was independent of GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) in the vagus nerve, area postrema, and paraventricular nucleus. Peripheral injection of fluorescently labeled liraglutide in mice revealed the presence of the drug in the circumventricular organs. Moreover, labeled liraglutide bound neurons within the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and other discrete sites in the hypothalamus. GLP-1R was necessary for liraglutide uptake in the brain, as liraglutide binding was not seen in
Anna Secher, Jacob Jelsing, Arian F. Baquero, Jacob Hecksher-Sørensen, Michael A. Cowley, Louise S. Dalbøge, Gitte Hansen, Kevin L. Grove, Charles Pyke, Kirsten Raun, Lauge Schäffer, Mads Tang-Christensen, Saurabh Verma, Brent M. Witgen, Niels Vrang, Lotte Bjerre Knudsen
A maternal diet that is low in protein increases the susceptibility of offspring to type 2 diabetes by inducing long-term alterations in β cell mass and function. Nutrients and growth factor signaling converge through mTOR, suggesting that this pathway participates in β cell programming during fetal development. Here, we revealed that newborns of dams exposed to low-protein diet (LP0.5) throughout pregnancy exhibited decreased insulin levels, a lower β cell fraction, and reduced mTOR signaling. Adult offspring of LP0.5-exposed mothers exhibited glucose intolerance as a result of an insulin secretory defect and not β cell mass reduction. The β cell insulin secretory defect was distal to glucose-dependent Ca2+ influx and resulted from reduced proinsulin biosynthesis and insulin content. Islets from offspring of LP0.5-fed dams exhibited reduced mTOR and increased expression of a subset of microRNAs, and blockade of microRNA-199a-3p and -342 in these islets restored mTOR and insulin secretion to normal. Finally, transient β cell activation of mTORC1 signaling in offspring during the last week of pregnancy of mothers fed a LP0.5 rescued the defect in the neonatal β cell fraction and metabolic abnormalities in the adult. Together, these findings indicate that a maternal low-protein diet alters microRNA and mTOR expression in the offspring, influencing insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis.
Emilyn U. Alejandro, Brigid Gregg, Taylor Wallen, Doga Kumusoglu, Daniel Meister, Angela Chen, Matthew J. Merrins, Leslie S. Satin, Ming Liu, Peter Arvan, Ernesto Bernal-Mizrachi