BACKGROUND. The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat (VOR) can increase HIV RNA expression in vivo within resting CD4+ T cells of aviremic HIV+ individuals. However, while studies of VOR or other HDAC inhibitors have reported reversal of latency, none has demonstrated clearance of latent infection. We sought to identify the optimal dosing of VOR for effective serial reversal of HIV latency. METHODS. In a study of 16 HIV-infected, aviremic individuals, we measured resting CD4+ T cell–associated HIV RNA ex vivo and in vivo following a single exposure to VOR, and then in vivo after a pair of doses separated by 48 or 72 hours, and finally following a series of 10 doses given at 72-hour intervals. RESULTS. Serial VOR exposures separated by 72 hours most often resulted in an increase in cell-associated HIV RNA within circulating resting CD4+ T cells. VOR was well tolerated by all participants. However, despite serial reversal of latency over 1 month of VOR dosing, we did not observe a measurable decrease (>0.3 log10) in the frequency of latent infection within resting CD4+ T cells. CONCLUSIONS. These findings outline parameters for the experimental use of VOR to clear latent infection. Latency reversal can be achieved by VOR safely and repeatedly, but effective depletion of persistent HIV infection will require additional advances. In addition to improvements in latency reversal, these advances may include the sustained induction of potent antiviral immune responses capable of recognizing and clearing the rare cells in which HIV latency has been reversed. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01319383. FUNDING. NIH grants U01 AI095052, AI50410, and P30 CA016086 and National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences grant KL2 TR001109.
Nancie M. Archin, Jennifer L. Kirchherr, Julia A.M. Sung, Genevieve Clutton, Katherine Sholtis, Yinyan Xu, Brigitte Allard, Erin Stuelke, Angela D. Kashuba, Joann D. Kuruc, Joseph Eron, Cynthia L. Gay, Nilu Goonetilleke, David M. Margolis
Lothar Seefried, Jasmin Baumann, Sarah Hemsley, Christine Hofmann, Erdmute Kunstmann, Beate Kiese, Yue Huang, Simon Chivers, Marie-Anne Valentin, Babul Borah, Ronenn Roubenoff, Uwe Junker, Franz Jakob
Kit L. Shaw, Elizabeth Garabedian, Suparna Mishra, Provaboti Barman, Alejandra Davila, Denise Carbonaro, Sally Shupien, Christopher Silvin, Sabine Geiger, Barbara Nowicki, E. Monika Smogorzewska, Berkley Brown, Xiaoyan Wang, Satiro de Oliveira, Yeong Choi, Alan Ikeda, Dayna Terrazas, Pei-Yu Fu, Allen Yu, Beatriz Campo Fernandez, Aaron R. Cooper, Barbara Engel, Greg Podsakoff, Arumugam Balamurugan, Stacie Anderson, Linda Muul, G. Jayashree Jagadeesh, Neena Kapoor, John Tse, Theodore B. Moore, Ken Purdy, Radha Rishi, Kathey Mohan, Suzanne Skoda-Smith, David Buchbinder, Roshini S. Abraham, Andrew Scharenberg, Otto O. Yang, Kenneth Cornetta, David Gjertson, Michael Hershfield, Rob Sokolic, Fabio Candotti, Donald B. Kohn
Francesca Rapido, Gary M. Brittenham, Sheila Bandyopadhyay, Francesca La Carpia, Camilla L’Acqua, Donald J. McMahon, Abdelhadi Rebbaa, Boguslaw S. Wojczyk, Jane Netterwald, Hangli Wang, Joseph Schwartz, Andrew Eisenberger, Mark Soffing, Randy Yeh, Chaitanya Divgi, Yelena Z. Ginzburg, Beth H. Shaz, Sujit Sheth, Richard O. Francis, Steven L. Spitalnik, Eldad A. Hod
Trevor J. Cunningham, Mary Tabacchi, Jean-Pierre Eliane, Sara Moradi Tuchayi, Sindhu Manivasagam, Hengameh Mirzaalian, Ahu Turkoz, Raphael Kopan, Andras Schaffer, Arturo P. Saavedra, Michael Wallendorf, Lynn A. Cornelius, Shadmehr Demehri
Hooman Mirzakhani, Augusto A. Litonjua, Thomas F. McElrath, George O’Connor, Aviva Lee-Parritz, Ronald Iverson, George Macones, Robert C. Strunk, Leonard B. Bacharier, Robert Zeiger, Bruce W. Hollis, Diane E. Handy, Amitabh Sharma, Nancy Laranjo, Vincent Carey, Weilliang Qiu, Marc Santolini, Shikang Liu, Divya Chhabra, Daniel A. Enquobahrie, Michelle A. Williams, Joseph Loscalzo, Scott T. Weiss
Mark R. Rigby, Kristina M. Harris, Ashley Pinckney, Linda A. DiMeglio, Marc S. Rendell, Eric I. Felner, Jean M. Dostou, Stephen E. Gitelman, Kurt J. Griffin, Eva Tsalikian, Peter A. Gottlieb, Carla J. Greenbaum, Nicole A. Sherry, Wayne V. Moore, Roshanak Monzavi, Steven M. Willi, Philip Raskin, Lynette Keyes-Elstein, S. Alice Long, Sai Kanaparthi, Noha Lim, Deborah Phippard, Carol L. Soppe, Margret L. Fitzgibbon, James McNamara, Gerald T. Nepom, Mario R. Ehlers, the Immune Tolerance Network (ITN) T1DAL Study Group
Lisa M. Rice, Cristina M. Padilla, Sarah R. McLaughlin, Allison Mathes, Jessica Ziemek, Salma Goummih, Sashidhar Nakerakanti, Michael York, Giuseppina Farina, Michael L. Whitfield, Robert F. Spiera, Romy B. Christmann, Jessica K. Gordon, Janice Weinberg, Robert W. Simms, Robert Lafyatis
BACKGROUND. Individuals treated with the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor anacetrapib exhibit a reduction in both LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) in response to monotherapy or combination therapy with a statin. It is not clear how anacetrapib exerts these effects; therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the kinetic mechanism responsible for the reduction in LDL and ApoB in response to anacetrapib.
METHODS. We performed a trial of the effects of anacetrapib on ApoB kinetics. Mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects were randomized to background treatment of either placebo (
RESULTS. Anacetrapib markedly reduced the LDL-ApoB-100 pool size (PS) in both the placebo and ATV groups. These changes in PS resulted from substantial increases in LDL-ApoB-100 FCRs in both groups. Anacetrapib had no effect on LDL-ApoB-100 PRs in either treatment group. Moreover, there were no changes in the PCSK9 PS, FCR, or PR in either group. Anacetrapib treatment was associated with considerable increases in the LDL triglyceride/cholesterol ratio and LDL size by NMR.
CONCLUSION. These data indicate that anacetrapib, given alone or in combination with a statin, reduces LDL-ApoB-100 levels by increasing the rate of ApoB-100 fractional clearance.
TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00990808.
FUNDING. Merck & Co. Inc., Kenilworth, New Jersey, USA. Additional support for instrumentation was obtained from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (UL1TR000003 and UL1TR000040).
John S. Millar, Gissette Reyes-Soffer, Patricia Jumes, Richard L. Dunbar, Emil M. deGoma, Amanda L. Baer, Wahida Karmally, Daniel S. Donovan, Hashmi Rafeek, Laura Pollan, Junichiro Tohyama, Amy O. Johnson-Levonas, John A. Wagner, Stephen Holleran, Joseph Obunike, Yang Liu, Rajasekhar Ramakrishnan, Michael E. Lassman, David E. Gutstein, Henry N. Ginsberg, Daniel J. Rader
Miguel Verbitsky, Simone Sanna-Cherchi, David A. Fasel, Brynn Levy, Krzysztof Kiryluk, Matthias Wuttke, Alison G. Abraham, Frederick Kaskel, Anna Köttgen, Bradley A. Warady, Susan L. Furth, Craig S. Wong, Ali G. Gharavi