Wnt/β-catenin/TCF signaling stimulates bone formation and suppresses adipogenesis. The hallmarks of skeletal involution with age, on the other hand, are decreased bone formation and increased bone marrow adiposity. These changes are associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased growth factor production, which activates members of the FOXO family of transcription factors. FOXOs in turn attenuate Wnt/β-catenin signaling by diverting β-catenin from TCF- to FOXO-mediated transcription. We show herein that mice lacking
Srividhya Iyer, Elena Ambrogini, Shoshana M. Bartell, Li Han, Paula K. Roberson, Rafael de Cabo, Robert L. Jilka, Robert S. Weinstein, Charles A. O’Brien, Stavros C. Manolagas, Maria Almeida
Cathepsin K (CTSK) is secreted by osteoclasts to degrade collagen and other matrix proteins during bone resorption. Global deletion of
Sutada Lotinun, Riku Kiviranta, Takuma Matsubara, Jorge A. Alzate, Lynn Neff, Anja Lüth, Ilpo Koskivirta, Burkhard Kleuser, Jean Vacher, Eero Vuorio, William C. Horne, Roland Baron
Osteoclasts are bone resorbing, multinucleate cells that differentiate from mononuclear macrophage/monocyte-lineage hematopoietic precursor cells. Although previous studies have revealed important molecular signals, how the bone resorptive functions of such cells are controlled in vivo remains less well characterized. Here, we visualized fluorescently labeled mature osteoclasts in intact mouse bone tissues using intravital multiphoton microscopy. Within this mature population, we observed cells with distinct motility behaviors and function, with the relative proportion of static – bone resorptive (R) to moving – nonresorptive (N) varying in accordance with the pathophysiological conditions of the bone. We also found that rapid application of the osteoclast-activation factor RANKL converted many N osteoclasts to R, suggesting a novel point of action in RANKL-mediated control of mature osteoclast function. Furthermore, we showed that Th17 cells, a subset of RANKL-expressing CD4+ T cells, could induce rapid N-to-R conversion of mature osteoclasts via cell-cell contact. These findings provide new insights into the activities of mature osteoclasts in situ and identify actions of RANKL-expressing Th17 cells in inflammatory bone destruction.
Junichi Kikuta, Yoh Wada, Toshiyuki Kowada, Ze Wang, Ge-Hong Sun-Wada, Issei Nishiyama, Shin Mizukami, Nobuhiko Maiya, Hisataka Yasuda, Atsushi Kumanogoh, Kazuya Kikuchi, Ronald N. Germain, Masaru Ishii
The detection of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in osteoblasts and osteoclasts over 20 years ago suggested that direct effects of estrogens on both of these cell types are responsible for their beneficial effects on the skeleton, but the role of ERα in osteoblast lineage cells has remained elusive. In addition, estrogen activation of ERα in osteoclasts can only account for the protective effect of estrogens on the cancellous, but not the cortical, bone compartment that represents 80% of the entire skeleton. Here, we deleted ERα at different stages of differentiation in murine osteoblast lineage cells. We found that ERα in osteoblast progenitors expressing Osterix1 (Osx1) potentiates Wnt/β-catenin signaling, thereby increasing proliferation and differentiation of periosteal cells. Further, this signaling pathway was required for optimal cortical bone accrual at the periosteum in mice. Notably, this function did not require estrogens. The osteoblast progenitor ERα mediated a protective effect of estrogens against endocortical, but not cancellous, bone resorption. ERα in mature osteoblasts or osteocytes did not influence cancellous or cortical bone mass. Hence, the ERα in both osteoblast progenitors and osteoclasts functions to optimize bone mass but at distinct bone compartments and in response to different cues.
Maria Almeida, Srividhya Iyer, Marta Martin-Millan, Shoshana M. Bartell, Li Han, Elena Ambrogini, Melda Onal, Jinhu Xiong, Robert S. Weinstein, Robert L. Jilka, Charles A. O’Brien, Stavros C. Manolagas
Long-term glucocorticoid treatment is associated with numerous adverse outcomes, including weight gain, insulin resistance, and diabetes; however, the pathogenesis of these side effects remains obscure. Glucocorticoids also suppress osteoblast function, including osteocalcin synthesis. Osteocalcin is an osteoblast-specific peptide that is reported to be involved in normal murine fuel metabolism. We now demonstrate that osteoblasts play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of glucocorticoid-induced dysmetabolism. Osteoblast-targeted disruption of glucocorticoid signaling significantly attenuated the suppression of osteocalcin synthesis and prevented the development of insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and abnormal weight gain in corticosterone-treated mice. Nearly identical effects were observed in glucocorticoid-treated animals following heterotopic (hepatic) expression of both carboxylated and uncarboxylated osteocalcin through gene therapy, which additionally led to a reduction in hepatic lipid deposition and improved phosphorylation of the insulin receptor. These data suggest that the effects of exogenous high-dose glucocorticoids on insulin target tissues and systemic energy metabolism are mediated, at least in part, through the skeleton.
Tara C. Brennan-Speranza, Holger Henneicke, Sylvia J. Gasparini, Katharina I. Blankenstein, Uta Heinevetter, Victoria C. Cogger, Dmitri Svistounov, Yaqing Zhang, Gregory J. Cooney, Frank Buttgereit, Colin R. Dunstan, Caren Gundberg, Hong Zhou, Markus J. Seibel
The adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor P2RY12 (purinergic receptor P2Y, G protein coupled, 12) plays a critical role in platelet aggregation, and P2RY12 inhibitors are used clinically to prevent cardiac and cerebral thrombotic events. Extracellular ADP has also been shown to increase osteoclast (OC) activity, but the role of P2RY12 in OC biology is unknown. Here, we examined the role of mouse P2RY12 in OC function. Mice lacking P2ry12 had decreased OC activity and were partially protected from age-associated bone loss. P2ry12–/– OCs exhibited intact differentiation markers, but diminished resorptive function. Extracellular ADP enhanced OC adhesion and resorptive activity of WT, but not P2ry12–/–, OCs. In platelets, ADP stimulation of P2RY12 resulted in GTPase Ras-related protein (RAP1) activation and subsequent αIIbβ3 integrin activation. Likewise, we found that ADP stimulation induced RAP1 activation in WT and integrin β3 gene knockout (Itgb3–/–) OCs, but its effects were substantially blunted in P2ry12–/– OCs. In vivo, P2ry12–/– mice were partially protected from pathologic bone loss associated with serum transfer arthritis, tumor growth in bone, and ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis: all conditions associated with increased extracellular ADP. Finally, mice treated with the clinical inhibitor of P2RY12, clopidogrel, were protected from pathologic osteolysis. These results demonstrate that P2RY12 is the primary ADP receptor in OCs and suggest that P2RY12 inhibition is a potential therapeutic target for pathologic bone loss.
Xinming Su, Desiree H. Floyd, Alun Hughes, Jingyu Xiang, Jochen G. Schneider, Ozge Uluckan, Emanuela Heller, Hongju Deng, Wei Zou, Clarissa S. Craft, Kaiming Wu, Angela C. Hirbe, Dorota Grabowska, Mark C. Eagleton, Sarah Townsley, Lynne Collins, David Piwnica-Worms, Thomas H. Steinberg, Deborah V. Novack, Pamela B. Conley, Michelle A. Hurchla, Michael Rogers, Katherine N. Weilbaecher
The osteoporosis associated with human hyperthyroidism has traditionally been attributed to elevated thyroid hormone levels. There is evidence, however, that thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which is low in most hyperthyroid states, directly affects the skeleton. Importantly, Tshr-knockout mice are osteopenic. In order to determine whether low TSH levels contribute to bone loss in hyperthyroidism, we compared the skeletal phenotypes of wild-type and Tshr-knockout mice that were rendered hyperthyroid. We found that hyperthyroid mice lacking TSHR had greater bone loss and resorption than hyperthyroid wild-type mice, thereby demonstrating that the absence of TSH signaling contributes to bone loss. Further, we identified a TSH-like factor that may confer osteoprotection. These studies suggest that therapeutic suppression of TSH to very low levels may contribute to bone loss in people.
Ramkumarie Baliram, Li Sun, Jay Cao, Jianhua Li, Rauf Latif, Amanda K. Huber, Tony Yuen, Harry C. Blair, Mone Zaidi, Terry F. Davies
Serotonin is a critical regulator of bone mass, fulfilling different functions depending on its site of synthesis. Brain-derived serotonin promotes osteoblast proliferation, whereas duodenal-derived serotonin suppresses it. To understand the molecular mechanisms of duodenal-derived serotonin action on osteoblasts, we explored its transcriptional mediation in mice. We found that the transcription factor FOXO1 is a crucial determinant of the effects of duodenum-derived serotonin on bone formation We identified two key FOXO1 complexes in osteoblasts, one with the transcription factor cAMP-responsive element–binding protein 1 (CREB) and another with activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). Under normal levels of circulating serotonin, the proliferative activity of FOXO1 was promoted by a balance between its interaction with CREB and ATF4. However, high circulating serotonin levels prevented the association of FOXO1 with CREB, resulting in suppressed osteoblast proliferation. These observations identify FOXO1 as the molecular node of an intricate transcriptional machinery that confers the signal of duodenal-derived serotonin to inhibit bone formation.
Aruna Kode, Ioanna Mosialou, Barbara C. Silva, Marie-Therese Rached, Bin Zhou, Ji Wang, Tim M. Townes, Rene Hen, Ronald A. DePinho, X. Edward Guo, Stavroula Kousteni
Osteoporotic bones have reduced spongy bone mass, altered bone architecture, and increased marrow fat. Bone marrow stem cells from osteoporotic patients are more likely to differentiate into adipocytes than control cells, suggesting that adipocyte differentiation may play a role in osteoporosis. VEGF is highly expressed in osteoblastic precursor cells and is known to stimulate bone formation. Here we tested the hypothesis that VEGF is also an important regulator of cell fate, determining whether differentiation gives rise to osteoblasts or adipocytes. Mice with conditional VEGF deficiency in osteoblastic precursor cells exhibited an osteoporosis-like phenotype characterized by reduced bone mass and increased bone marrow fat. In addition, reduced VEGF expression in mesenchymal stem cells resulted in reduced osteoblast and increased adipocyte differentiation. Osteoblast differentiation was reduced when VEGF receptor 1 or 2 was knocked down but was unaffected by treatment with recombinant VEGF or neutralizing antibodies against VEGF. Our results suggested that VEGF controls differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells by regulating the transcription factors RUNX2 and PPARγ2 as well as through a reciprocal interaction with nuclear envelope proteins lamin A/C. Importantly, our data support a model whereby VEGF regulates differentiation through an intracrine mechanism that is distinct from the role of secreted VEGF and its receptors.
Yanqiu Liu, Agnes D. Berendsen, Shidong Jia, Sutada Lotinun, Roland Baron, Napoleone Ferrara, Bjorn R. Olsen
Serum calcium levels are tightly controlled by an integrated hormone-controlled system that involves active vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], which can elicit calcium mobilization from bone when intestinal calcium absorption is decreased. The skeletal adaptations, however, are still poorly characterized. To gain insight into these issues, we analyzed the consequences of specific vitamin D receptor (Vdr) inactivation in the intestine and in mature osteoblasts on calcium and bone homeostasis. We report here that decreased intestinal calcium absorption in intestine-specific Vdr knockout mice resulted in severely reduced skeletal calcium levels so as to ensure normal levels of calcium in the serum. Furthermore, increased 1,25(OH)2D levels not only stimulated bone turnover, leading to osteopenia, but also suppressed bone matrix mineralization. This resulted in extensive hyperosteoidosis, also surrounding the osteocytes, and hypomineralization of the entire bone cortex, which may have contributed to the increase in bone fractures. Mechanistically, osteoblastic VDR signaling suppressed calcium incorporation in bone by directly stimulating the transcription of genes encoding mineralization inhibitors. Ablation of skeletal Vdr signaling precluded this calcium transfer from bone to serum, leading to better preservation of bone mass and mineralization. These findings indicate that in mice, maintaining normocalcemia has priority over skeletal integrity, and that to minimize skeletal calcium storage, 1,25(OH)2D not only increases calcium release from bone, but also inhibits calcium incorporation in bone.
Liesbet Lieben, Ritsuko Masuyama, Sophie Torrekens, Riet Van Looveren, Jan Schrooten, Pieter Baatsen, Marie-Hélène Lafage-Proust, Tom Dresselaers, Jian Q. Feng, Lynda F. Bonewald, Mark B. Meyer, J. Wesley Pike, Roger Bouillon, Geert Carmeliet