The heterotrimeric G protein subunit Gsα stimulates cAMP-dependent signaling downstream of G protein–coupled receptors. In this study, we set out to determine the role of Gsα signaling in cells of the early osteoblast lineage in vivo by conditionally deleting Gsα from osterix-expressing cells. This led to severe osteoporosis with fractures at birth, a phenotype that was found to be the consequence of impaired bone formation rather than increased resorption. Osteoblast number was markedly decreased and osteogenic differentiation was accelerated, resulting in the formation of woven bone. Rapid differentiation of mature osteoblasts into matrix-embedded osteocytes likely contributed to depletion of the osteoblast pool. In addition, the number of committed osteoblast progenitors was diminished in both bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and calvarial cells of mutant mice. In the absence of Gsα, expression of sclerostin and dickkopf1 (Dkk1), inhibitors of canonical Wnt signaling, was markedly increased; this was accompanied by reduced Wnt signaling in the osteoblast lineage. In summary, we have shown that Gsα regulates bone formation by at least two distinct mechanisms: facilitating the commitment of mesenchymal progenitors to the osteoblast lineage in association with enhanced Wnt signaling; and restraining the differentiation of committed osteoblasts to enable production of bone of optimal mass, quality, and strength.
Joy Y. Wu, Piia Aarnisalo, Murat Bastepe, Partha Sinha, Keertik Fulzele, Martin K. Selig, Min Chen, Ingrid J. Poulton, Louise E. Purton, Natalie A. Sims, Lee S. Weinstein, Henry M. Kronenberg
A fine balance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts maintains bone homeostasis. In patients with cherubism, gain-of-function mutations in 3BP2, which is encoded by SH3-domain binding protein 2 (SH3BP2), cause cystic lesions with activated osteoclasts that lead to craniofacial abnormalities. However, little is known about the function of wild-type 3BP2 in regulating bone homeostasis. Here we have shown that 3BP2 is required for the normal function of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Initial analysis showed that Sh3bp2–/–mice developed osteoporosis as a result of reduced bone formation despite the fact that bone resorption was impaired. We demonstrated using reciprocal bone marrow chimeras, a cell-intrinsic defect of the osteoblast and osteoclast compartments in vivo. Further, Sh3bp2–/– osteoblasts failed to mature and form mineralized nodules in vitro, while Sh3bp2–/– osteoclasts spread poorly and were unable to effectively degrade dentine matrix in vitro. Finally, we showed that 3BP2 was required for Abl activation in osteoblasts and Src activation in osteoclasts, and demonstrated that the in vitro defect of each cell type was restored by the respective expression of activated forms of these kinases. These findings reveal an unanticipated role for the 3BP2 adapter protein in osteoblast function and in coordinating bone homeostatic signals in both osteoclast and osteoblast lineages.
Noam Levaot, Paul D. Simoncic, Ioannis D. Dimitriou, Andrew Scotter, Jose La Rose, Adeline H.M. Ng, Thomas L. Willett, Chiachien J. Wang, Salima Janmohamed, Marc Grynpas, Ernst Reichenberger, Robert Rottapel
Aging leads to the disruption of the homeostatic balance of multiple biological systems. In bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal cells undergo differentiation into various anchorage-dependent cell types, including osteoblasts and adipocytes. With age as well as with treatment of antidiabetic drugs such as thiazolidinediones, mesenchymal cells favor differentiation into adipocytes, resulting in an increased number of adipocytes and a decreased number of osteoblasts, causing osteoporosis. The mechanism behind this differentiation switch is unknown. Here we show an age-related decrease in the expression of Maf in mouse mesenchymal cells, which regulated mesenchymal cell bifurcation into osteoblasts and adipocytes by cooperating with the osteogenic transcription factor Runx2 and inhibiting the expression of the adipogenic transcription factor Pparg. The crucial role of Maf in both osteogenesis and adipogenesis was underscored by in vivo observations of delayed bone formation in perinatal Maf–/– mice and an accelerated formation of fatty marrow associated with bone loss in aged Maf+/– mice. This study identifies a transcriptional mechanism for an age-related switch in cell fate determination and may provide a molecular basis for novel therapeutic strategies against age-related bone diseases.
Keizo Nishikawa, Tomoki Nakashima, Shu Takeda, Masashi Isogai, Michito Hamada, Ayako Kimura, Tatsuhiko Kodama, Akira Yamaguchi, Michael J. Owen, Satoru Takahashi, Hiroshi Takayanagi
Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is a critical transcription factor for osteoblast (OBL) function and bone formation; however, a direct role in osteoclasts (OCLs) has not been established. Here, we targeted expression of ATF4 to the OCL lineage using the Trap promoter or through deletion of Atf4 in mice. OCL differentiation was drastically decreased in Atf4–/– bone marrow monocyte (BMM) cultures and bones. Coculture of Atf4–/– BMMs with WT OBLs or a high concentration of RANKL failed to restore the OCL differentiation defect. Conversely, Trap-Atf4-tg mice displayed severe osteopenia with dramatically increased osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. We further showed that ATF4 was an upstream activator of the critical transcription factor Nfatc1 and was critical for RANKL activation of multiple MAPK pathways in OCL progenitors. Furthermore, ATF4 was crucial for M-CSF induction of RANK expression on BMMs, and lack of ATF4 caused a shift in OCL precursors to macrophages. Finally, ATF4 was largely modulated by M-CSF signaling and the PI3K/AKT pathways in BMMs. These results demonstrate that ATF4 plays a direct role in regulating OCL differentiation and suggest that it may be a therapeutic target for treating bone diseases associated with increased OCL activity.
Huiling Cao, Shibing Yu, Zhi Yao, Deborah L. Galson, Yu Jiang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Jie Fan, Binfeng Lu, Youfei Guan, Min Luo, Yumei Lai, Yibei Zhu, Noriyoshi Kurihara, Kenneth Patrene, G. David Roodman, Guozhi Xiao
Nearly every extracellular ligand that has been found to play a role in regulating bone biology acts, at least in part, through MAPK pathways. Nevertheless, much remains to be learned about the contribution of MAPKs to osteoblast biology in vivo. Here we report that the p38 MAPK pathway is required for normal skeletogenesis in mice, as mice with deletion of any of the MAPK pathway member–encoding genes MAPK kinase 3 (Mkk3), Mkk6, p38a, or p38b displayed profoundly reduced bone mass secondary to defective osteoblast differentiation. Among the MAPK kinase kinase (MAP3K) family, we identified TGF-β–activated kinase 1 (TAK1; also known as MAP3K7) as the critical activator upstream of p38 in osteoblasts. Osteoblast-specific deletion of Tak1 resulted in clavicular hypoplasia and delayed fontanelle fusion, a phenotype similar to the cleidocranial dysplasia observed in humans haploinsufficient for the transcription factor runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2). Mechanistic analysis revealed that the TAK1–MKK3/6–p38 MAPK axis phosphorylated Runx2, promoting its association with the coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP), which was required to regulate osteoblast genetic programs. These findings reveal an in vivo function for p38β and establish that MAPK signaling is essential for bone formation in vivo. These results also suggest that selective p38β agonists may represent attractive therapeutic agents to prevent bone loss associated with osteoporosis and aging.
Matthew B. Greenblatt, Jae-Hyuck Shim, Weiguo Zou, Despina Sitara, Michelle Schweitzer, Dorothy Hu, Sutada Lotinun, Yasuyo Sano, Roland Baron, Jin Mo Park, Simon Arthur, Min Xie, Michael D. Schneider, Bo Zhai, Steven Gygi, Roger Davis, Laurie H. Glimcher
The majority of human skeletal dysplasias are caused by dysregulation of growth plate homeostasis. As TGF-β signaling is a critical determinant of growth plate homeostasis, skeletal dysplasias are often associated with dysregulation of this pathway. The context-dependent action of TFG-β signaling is tightly controlled by numerous mechanisms at the extracellular level and downstream of ligand-receptor interactions. However, TGF-β is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is cleaved to become mature in the Golgi apparatus, and the regulation of this posttranslational intracellular processing and trafficking is much less defined. Here, we report that a cysteine-rich protein, E-selectin ligand–1 (ESL-1), acts as a negative regulator of TGF-β production by binding TGF-β precursors in the Golgi apparatus in a cell-autonomous fashion, inhibiting their maturation. Furthermore, ESL-1 inhibited the processing of proTGF-β by a furin-like protease, leading to reduced secretion of mature TGF-β by primary mouse chondrocytes and HEK293 cells. In vivo loss of Esl1 in mice led to increased TGF-β/SMAD signaling in the growth plate that was associated with reduced chondrocyte proliferation and delayed terminal differentiation. Gain-of-function and rescue studies of the Xenopus ESL-1 ortholog in the context of early embryogenesis showed that this regulation of TGF-β/Nodal signaling was evolutionarily conserved. This study identifies what we believe to be a novel intracellular mechanism for regulating TGF-β during skeletal development and homeostasis.
Tao Yang, Roberto Mendoza-Londono, Huifang Lu, Jianning Tao, Kaiyi Li, Bettina Keller, Ming Ming Jiang, Rina Shah, Yuqing Chen, Terry K. Bertin, Feyza Engin, Branka Dabovic, Daniel B. Rifkin, John Hicks, Milan Jamrich, Arthur L. Beaudet, Brendan Lee
The modeling and remodeling of bone requires activation and polarization of osteoclasts, achieved by reorganization of the cytoskeleton. Members of the Rho subfamily of small GTPases, including Cdc42, are known regulators of cytoskeletal components, but the role of these proteins in bone physiology and pathophysiology remains unclear. Here, we examined loss-of-function mice in which Cdc42 was selectively ablated in differentiated osteoclasts and gain-of-function animals wherein Cdc42Gap, a protein that inactivates the small GTPase, was deleted globally. Cdc42 loss-of-function mice were osteopetrotic and resistant to ovariectomy-induced bone loss, while gain-of-function animals were osteoporotic. Isolated Cdc42-deficient osteoclasts displayed suppressed bone resorption, while osteoclasts with increased Cdc42 activity had enhanced resorptive capacity. We further demonstrated that Cdc42 modulated M-CSF–stimulated cyclin D expression and phosphorylation of Rb and induced caspase 3 and Bim, thus contributing to osteoclast proliferation and apoptosis rates. Furthermore, Cdc42 was required for multiple M-CSF– and RANKL-induced osteoclastogenic signals including activation and expression of the differentiation factors MITF and NFATc1 and was a component of the Par3/Par6/atypical PKC polarization complex in osteoclasts. These data suggest that Cdc42 regulates osteoclast formation and function and may represent a promising therapeutic target for prevention of pathological bone loss.
Yuji Ito, Steven L. Teitelbaum, Wei Zou, Yi Zheng, James F. Johnson, Jean Chappel, F. Patrick Ross, Haibo Zhao
Hui Li, Hui Xie, Wei Liu, Rong Hu, Bi Huang, Yan-Fei Tan, Kang Xu, Zhi-Feng Sheng, Hou-De Zhou, Xian-Ping Wu, Xiang-Hang Luo
Effective osteoporosis therapy requires agents that increase the amount and/or quality of bone. Any modification of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption by disease or drug treatment, however, elicits a parallel change in osteoblast-mediated bone formation because the processes are tightly coupled. Anabolic approaches now focus on uncoupling osteoblast action from osteoclast formation, for example, by inhibiting sclerostin, an inhibitor of bone formation that does not influence osteoclast differentiation. Here, we report that oncostatin M (OSM) is produced by osteoblasts and osteocytes in mouse bone and that it has distinct effects when acting through 2 different receptors, OSM receptor (OSMR) and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR). Specifically, mouse OSM (mOSM) inhibited sclerostin production in a stromal cell line and in primary murine osteoblast cultures by acting through LIFR. In contrast, when acting through OSMR, mOSM stimulated RANKL production and osteoclast formation. A key role for OSMR in bone turnover was confirmed by the osteopetrotic phenotype of mice lacking OSMR. Furthermore, in contrast to the accepted model, in which mOSM acts only through OSMR, mOSM inhibited sclerostin expression in Osmr–/– osteoblasts and enhanced bone formation in vivo. These data reveal what we believe to be a novel pathway by which bone formation can be stimulated independently of bone resorption and provide new insights into OSMR and LIFR signaling that are relevant to other medical conditions, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases and cancer.
Emma C. Walker, Narelle E. McGregor, Ingrid J. Poulton, Melissa Solano, Sueli Pompolo, Tania J. Fernandes, Matthew J. Constable, Geoff C. Nicholson, Jian-Guo Zhang, Nicos A. Nicola, Matthew T. Gillespie, T. John Martin, Natalie A. Sims
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) interfere with translation of specific target mRNAs and are thought to thereby regulate many cellular processes. Recent studies have suggested that miRNAs might play a role in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Here, we identify a new miRNA (miR-2861) in primary mouse osteoblasts that promotes osteoblast differentiation by repressing histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) expression at the post-transcriptional level. miR-2861 was found to be transcribed in ST2 stromal cells during bone morphogenetic protein 2–induced (BMP2-induced) osteogenesis, and overexpression of miR-2861 enhanced BMP2-induced osteoblastogenesis, whereas inhibition of miR-2861 expression attenuated it. HDAC5, an enhancer of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) degradation, was confirmed to be a target of miR-2861. In vivo silencing of miR-2861 in mice reduced Runx2 protein expression, inhibited bone formation, and decreased bone mass. Importantly, miR-2861 was found to be conserved in humans, and a homozygous mutation in pre–miR-2861 that blocked expression of miR-2861 was shown to cause primary osteoporosis in 2 related adolescents. Consistent with the mouse data, HDAC5 levels were increased and Runx2 levels decreased in bone samples from the 2 affected individuals. Thus, our studies show that miR-2861 plays an important physiological role in osteoblast differentiation and contributes to osteoporosis via its effect on osteoblasts.
Hui Li, Hui Xie, Wei Liu, Rong Hu, Bi Huang, Yan-Fei Tan, Er-Yuan Liao, Kang Xu, Zhi-Feng Sheng, Hou-De Zhou, Xian-Ping Wu, Xiang-Hang Luo
Patients with classic fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, a disorder characterized by extensive extraskeletal endochondral bone formation, share a recurrent mutation (R206H) within the glycine/serine-rich domain of ACVR1/ALK2, a bone morphogenetic protein type I receptor. Through a series of in vitro assays using several mammalian cell lines and chick limb bud micromass cultures, we determined that mutant R206H ACVR1 activated BMP signaling in the absence of BMP ligand and mediated BMP-independent chondrogenesis that was enhanced by BMP. We further investigated the interaction of mutant R206H ACVR1 with FKBP1A, a glycine/serine domain–binding protein that prevents leaky BMP type I receptor activation in the absence of ligand. The mutant protein exhibited reduced binding to FKBP1A in COS-7 simian kidney cell line assays, suggesting that increased BMP pathway activity in COS-7 cells with R206H ACVR1 is due, at least in part, to decreased binding of this inhibitory factor. Consistent with these findings, in vivo analyses of zebrafish embryos showed BMP-independent hyperactivation of BMP signaling in response to the R206H mutant, resulting in increased embryonic ventralization. These data support the conclusion that the mutant R206H ACVR1 receptor in FOP patients is an activating mutation that induces BMP signaling in a BMP-independent and BMP-responsive manner to promote chondrogenesis, consistent with the ectopic endochondral bone formation in these patients.
Qi Shen, Shawn C. Little, Meiqi Xu, Julia Haupt, Cindy Ast, Takenobu Katagiri, Stefan Mundlos, Petra Seemann, Frederick S. Kaplan, Mary C. Mullins, Eileen M. Shore
TNF and RANKL mediate bone destruction in common bone diseases, including osteoarthritis and RA. They activate NF-κB canonical signaling directly in osteoclast precursors (OCPs) to induce osteoclast formation in vitro. However, unlike RANKL, TNF does not activate the alternative NF-κB pathway efficiently to process the IκB protein NF-κB p100 to NF-κB p52, nor does it appear to induce osteoclast formation in vivo in the absence of RANKL. Here, we show that TNF limits RANKL- and TNF-induced osteoclast formation in vitro and in vivo by increasing NF-κB p100 protein accumulation in OCPs. In contrast, TNF induced robust osteoclast formation in vivo in mice lacking RANKL or RANK when the mice also lacked NF-κB p100, and TNF-Tg mice lacking NF-κB p100 had more severe joint erosion and inflammation than did TNF-Tg littermates. TNF, but not RANKL, increased OCP expression of TNF receptor–associated factor 3 (TRAF3), an adapter protein that regulates NF-κB p100 levels in B cells. TRAF3 siRNA prevented TNF-induced NF-κB p100 accumulation and inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. These findings suggest that upregulation of TRAF3 or NF-κB p100 expression or inhibition of NF-κB p100 degradation in OCPs could limit bone destruction and inflammation-induced bone loss in common bone diseases.
Zhenqiang Yao, Lianping Xing, Brendan F. Boyce
The B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family member Bcl-xL has a well-characterized antiapoptotic function in lymphoid cells. However, its functions in other cells — including osteoclasts, which are of hematopoietic origin — and other cellular processes remain unknown. Here we report an unexpected function of Bcl-xL in attenuating the bone-resorbing activity of osteoclasts in mice. To investigate the role of Bcl-xL in osteoclasts, we generated mice with osteoclast-specific conditional deletion of Bcl-x (referred to herein as Bcl-x cKO mice) by mating Bcl-xfl/fl mice with mice in which the gene encoding the Cre recombinase has been knocked into the cathepsin K locus and specifically expressed in mature osteoclasts. Although the Bcl-x cKO mice grew normally with no apparent morphological abnormalities, they developed substantial osteopenia at 1 year of age, which was caused by increased bone resorption. Bcl-x deficiency increased the bone-resorbing activity of osteoclasts despite their high susceptibility to apoptosis, whereas Bcl-xL overexpression produced the opposite effect. In addition, Bcl-x cKO osteoclasts displayed increased c-Src activity, which was linked to increased levels of vitronectin and fibronectin expression. These results suggest that Bcl-xL attenuates osteoclastic bone-resorbing activity through the decreased production of ECM proteins, such as vitronectin and fibronectin, and thus provide evidence for what we believe to be a novel cellular function of Bcl-xL.
Mitsuyasu Iwasawa, Tsuyoshi Miyazaki, Yuichi Nagase, Toru Akiyama, Yuho Kadono, Masaki Nakamura, Yasushi Oshima, Tetsuro Yasui, Takumi Matsumoto, Takashi Nakamura, Shigeaki Kato, Lothar Hennighausen, Kozo Nakamura, Sakae Tanaka
Regulation of the formation and function of bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OCs) is a key to understanding the pathogenesis of skeletal disorders. Gene-targeting studies have shown that the RANK signaling pathway plays a critical role in OC differentiation and function. Although pharmaceutical blockade of RANK may be a viable strategy for preventing bone destruction, RANK is implicated in multiple biological processes. Recently, a cytoplasmic motif of RANK was identified that may be specifically involved in OC differentiation. Here, we developed a cell-permeable inhibitor termed the RANK receptor inhibitor (RRI), which targets this motif. The RRI peptide blocked RANKL-induced OC formation from murine bone marrow–derived macrophages. Furthermore, RRI inhibited the resorptive function of OCs and induced OC apoptosis. Treatment with the peptide impaired downstream signaling of RANK linked to Vav3, Rac1, and Cdc42 and resulted in disruptions of the actin cytoskeleton in differentiated OCs. In addition, RRI blocked inflammation-induced bone destruction and protected against ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice. These data may be useful in the development of selective therapeutic agents for the treatment of osteoporosis and other bone diseases.
Hyunsoo Kim, Han Kyoung Choi, Ji Hye Shin, Kyung Hee Kim, Ji Young Huh, Seung Ah Lee, Chang-Yong Ko, Han-Sung Kim, Hong-In Shin, Hwa Jeong Lee, Daewon Jeong, Nacksung Kim, Yongwon Choi, Soo Young Lee
Christopher B. Little, Clare T. Meeker, Suzanne B. Golub, Kate E. Lawlor, Pamela J. Farmer, Susan M. Smith, Amanda J. Fosang
Osteoporosis results from an imbalance in skeletal remodeling that favors bone resorption over bone formation. Bone matrix is degraded by osteoclasts, which differentiate from myeloid precursors in response to the cytokine RANKL. To gain insight into the transcriptional regulation of bone resorption during growth and disease, we generated a conditional knockout of the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (Nfatc1). Deletion of Nfatc1 in young mice resulted in osteopetrosis and inhibition of osteoclastogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Transcriptional profiling revealed NFATc1 as a master regulator of the osteoclast transcriptome, promoting the expression of numerous genes needed for bone resorption. In addition, NFATc1 directly repressed osteoclast progenitor expression of osteoprotegerin, a decoy receptor for RANKL previously thought to be an osteoblast-derived inhibitor of bone resorption. “Cherubism mice”, which carry a gain-of-function mutation in SH3-domain binding protein 2 (Sh3bp2), develop osteoporosis and widespread inflammation dependent on the proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-α. Interestingly, deletion of Nfatc1 protected cherubism mice from systemic bone loss but did not inhibit inflammation. Taken together, our study demonstrates that NFATc1 is required for remodeling of the growing and adult skeleton and suggests that NFATc1 may be an effective therapeutic target for osteoporosis associated with inflammatory states.
Antonios O. Aliprantis, Yasuyoshi Ueki, Rosalyn Sulyanto, Arnold Park, Kirsten S. Sigrist, Sudarshana M. Sharma, Michael C. Ostrowski, Bjorn R. Olsen, Laurie H. Glimcher
The Sox9 transcription factor plays an essential role in promoting chondrogenesis and regulating expression of chondrocyte extracellular-matrix genes. To identify genes that interact with Sox9 in promoting chondrocyte differentiation, we screened a cDNA library generated from the murine chondrogenic ATDC5 cell line to identify activators of the collagen, type II, α 1 (Col2a1) promoter. Here we have shown that paraspeckle regulatory protein 54-kDa nuclear RNA-binding protein (p54nrb) is an essential link between Sox9-regulated transcription and maturation of Sox9-target gene mRNA. We found that p54nrb physically interacted with Sox9 and enhanced Sox9-dependent transcriptional activation of the Col2a1 promoter. In ATDC5 cells, p54nrb colocalized with Sox9 protein in nuclear paraspeckle bodies, and knockdown of p54nrb suppressed Sox9-dependent Col2a1 expression and promoter activity. We generated a p54nrb mutant construct lacking RNA recognition motifs, and overexpression of mutant p54nrb in ATDC5 cells markedly altered the appearance of paraspeckle bodies and inhibited the maturation of Col2a1 mRNA. The mutant p54nrb inhibited chondrocyte differentiation of mesenchymal cells and mouse metatarsal explants. Furthermore, transgenic mice expressing the mutant p54nrb in the chondrocyte lineage exhibited dwarfism associated with impairment of chondrogenesis. These data suggest that p54nrb plays an important role in the regulation of Sox9 function and the formation of paraspeckle bodies during chondrogenesis.
Kenji Hata, Riko Nishimura, Shuji Muramatsu, Akio Matsuda, Takuma Matsubara, Katsuhiko Amano, Fumiyo Ikeda, Vincent R. Harley, Toshiyuki Yoneda
cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII; encoded by PRKG2) is a serine/threonine kinase that is critical for skeletal growth in mammals; in mice, cGKII deficiency results in dwarfism. Using radiographic analysis, we determined that this growth defect was a consequence of an elongated growth plate and impaired chondrocyte hypertrophy. To investigate the mechanism of cGKII-mediated chondrocyte hypertrophy, we performed a kinase substrate array and identified glycogen synthase kinase–3β (GSK-3β; encoded by Gsk3b) as a principal phosphorylation target of cGKII. In cultured mouse chondrocytes, phosphorylation-mediated inhibition of GSK-3β was associated with enhanced hypertrophic differentiation. Furthermore, cGKII induction of chondrocyte hypertrophy was suppressed by cotransfection with a phosphorylation-deficient mutant of GSK-3β. Analyses of mice with compound deficiencies in both protein kinases (Prkg2–/–Gsk3b+/–) demonstrated that the growth retardation and elongated growth plate associated with cGKII deficiency were partially rescued by haploinsufficiency of Gsk3b. We found that β-catenin levels decreased in Prkg2–/– mice, while overexpression of cGKII increased the accumulation and transactivation function of β-catenin in mouse chondroprogenitor ATDC5 cells. This effect was blocked by coexpression of phosphorylation-deficient GSK-3β. These data indicate that hypertrophic differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes during skeletal growth is promoted by phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3β by cGKII.
Yosuke Kawasaki, Fumitaka Kugimiya, Hirotaka Chikuda, Satoru Kamekura, Toshiyuki Ikeda, Naohiro Kawamura, Taku Saito, Yusuke Shinoda, Akiro Higashikawa, Fumiko Yano, Toru Ogasawara, Naoshi Ogata, Kazuto Hoshi, Franz Hofmann, James R. Woodgett, Kozo Nakamura, Ung-il Chung, Hiroshi Kawaguchi
Osteoclasts (OCs) function to reabsorb bone and are responsible for the bone loss associated with inflammatory arthritis and osteoporosis. OC numbers are elevated in most disorders of accelerated bone destruction, reflecting altered rates of precursor differentiation and apoptosis. Both of these processes are regulated by the JNK family of MAP kinases. In this study, we have demonstrated that the NF-κB subunit RelA/p65 inhibits JNK-mediated apoptosis during a critical period of commitment to the OC phenotype in response to the cytokine RANKL. This RelA/p65-mediated arrest of cell death led to enhanced OC differentiation. Hence, Rela–/– OC precursors displayed prolonged JNK activation in response to RANKL, and this was accompanied by an increase in cell death that prevented efficient differentiation. Although complete blockade of JNK activity inhibits osteoclastogenesis, both short-term blockade in RelA-deficient cultures and suppression of the downstream mediator, Bid rescued apoptosis and differentiation. These antiapoptotic effects were RelA specific, as overexpression of RelA, but not RelB, blocked apoptosis and rescued differentiation in Rela–/– precursors. Thus, RelA blocks a RANKL-induced, apoptotic JNK-Bid pathway, thereby promoting OC differentiation. Consistent with this, mice lacking RelA/p65 in the hematopoietic compartment were shown to have a deficient osteoclastogenic response to RANKL and were protected from arthritis-induced osteolysis.
Sergio Vaira, Muhammad Alhawagri, Imani Anwisye, Hideki Kitaura, Roberta Faccio, Deborah Veis Novack
Osteoclastogenesis is a tightly regulated biological process, and deregulation can lead to severe bone disorders such as osteoporosis. The regulation of osteoclastic signaling is incompletely understood, but ubiquitination of TNF receptor–associated factor 6 (TRAF6) has recently been shown to be important in mediating this process. We therefore investigated the role of the recently identified deubiquitinating enzyme CYLD in osteoclastogenesis and found that mice with a genetic deficiency of CYLD had aberrant osteoclast differentiation and developed severe osteoporosis. Cultured osteoclast precursors derived from CYLD-deficient mice were hyperresponsive to RANKL-induced differentiation and produced more and larger osteoclasts than did controls upon stimulation. We assessed the expression pattern of CYLD and found that it was drastically upregulated during RANKL-induced differentiation of preosteoclasts. Furthermore, CYLD negatively regulated RANK signaling by inhibiting TRAF6 ubiquitination and activation of downstream signaling events. Interestingly, we found that CYLD interacted physically with the signaling adaptor p62 and thereby was recruited to TRAF6. These findings establish CYLD as a crucial negative regulator of osteoclastogenesis and suggest its involvement in the p62/TRAF6 signaling axis.
Wei Jin, Mikyoung Chang, Emmanuel M. Paul, Geetha Babu, Andrew J. Lee, William Reiley, Ato Wright, Minying Zhang, Jun You, Shao-Cong Sun