Patient bone mineral density (BMD) predicts the likelihood of osteoporotic fracture. While substantial progress has been made toward elucidating the genetic determinants of BMD, our understanding of the factors involved remains incomplete. Here, using a systems genetics approach in the mouse, we predicted that bicaudal C homolog 1 (
Larry D. Mesner, Brianne Ray, Yi-Hsiang Hsu, Ani Manichaikul, Eric Lum, Elizabeth C. Bryda, Stephen S. Rich, Clifford J. Rosen, Michael H. Criqui, Matthew Allison, Matthew J. Budoff, Thomas L. Clemens, Charles R. Farber
Eric S. Orwoll, Jay Shapiro, Sandra Veith, Ying Wang, Jodi Lapidus, Chaim Vanek, Jan L. Reeder, Tony M. Keaveny, David C. Lee, Mary A. Mullins, Sandesh C.S. Nagamani, Brendan Lee
The cytokines RANKL and TNF activate NF-κB signaling in osteoclast precursors (OCPs) to induce osteoclast (OC) formation. Conversely, TNF can limit OC formation through NF-κB p100, which acts as an inhibitor, and TNF receptor–associated receptor 3 (TRAF3); however, a role for TRAF3 in RANKL-mediated OC formation is unknown. We found that TRAF3 limits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by suppressing canonical and noncanonical NF-κB signaling. Conditional OC-specific
Yan Xiu, Hao Xu, Chen Zhao, Jinbo Li, Yoshikazu Morita, Zhenqiang Yao, Lianping Xing, Brendan F. Boyce
ROS are implicated in bone diseases. NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), a constitutively active enzymatic source of ROS, may contribute to the development of such disorders. Therefore, we studied the role of NOX4 in bone homeostasis.
Claudia Goettsch, Andrea Babelova, Olivia Trummer, Reinhold G. Erben, Martina Rauner, Stefan Rammelt, Norbert Weissmann, Valeska Weinberger, Sebastian Benkhoff, Marian Kampschulte, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, Lorenz C. Hofbauer, Ralf P. Brandes, Katrin Schröder
Mice deficient in Schnurri-3 (SHN3; also known as HIVEP3) display increased bone formation, but harnessing this observation for therapeutic benefit requires an improved understanding of how SHN3 functions in osteoblasts. Here we identified SHN3 as a dampener of ERK activity that functions in part downstream of WNT signaling in osteoblasts. A D-domain motif within SHN3 mediated the interaction with and inhibition of ERK activity and osteoblast differentiation, and knockin of a mutation in
Jae-Hyuck Shim, Matthew B. Greenblatt, Weiguo Zou, Zhiwei Huang, Marc N. Wein, Nicholas Brady, Dorothy Hu, Jean Charron, Heather R. Brodkin, Gregory A. Petsko, Dennis Zaller, Bo Zhai, Steven Gygi, Laurie H. Glimcher, Dallas C. Jones
Bone remodeling is characterized by the sequential, local tethering of osteoclasts and osteoblasts and is key to the maintenance of bone integrity. While bone matrix–mobilized growth factors, such as TGF-β, are proposed to regulate remodeling, no in vivo evidence exists that an osteoclast-produced molecule serves as a coupling factor for bone resorption to formation. We found that CTHRC1, a protein secreted by mature bone-resorbing osteoclasts, targets stromal cells to stimulate osteogenesis.
Sunao Takeshita, Toshio Fumoto, Kazuhiko Matsuoka, Kyoung-ae Park, Hiroyuki Aburatani, Shigeaki Kato, Masako Ito, Kyoji Ikeda
Wnt/β-catenin/TCF signaling stimulates bone formation and suppresses adipogenesis. The hallmarks of skeletal involution with age, on the other hand, are decreased bone formation and increased bone marrow adiposity. These changes are associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased growth factor production, which activates members of the FOXO family of transcription factors. FOXOs in turn attenuate Wnt/β-catenin signaling by diverting β-catenin from TCF- to FOXO-mediated transcription. We show herein that mice lacking
Srividhya Iyer, Elena Ambrogini, Shoshana M. Bartell, Li Han, Paula K. Roberson, Rafael de Cabo, Robert L. Jilka, Robert S. Weinstein, Charles A. O’Brien, Stavros C. Manolagas, Maria Almeida
Cathepsin K (CTSK) is secreted by osteoclasts to degrade collagen and other matrix proteins during bone resorption. Global deletion of
Sutada Lotinun, Riku Kiviranta, Takuma Matsubara, Jorge A. Alzate, Lynn Neff, Anja Lüth, Ilpo Koskivirta, Burkhard Kleuser, Jean Vacher, Eero Vuorio, William C. Horne, Roland Baron
Osteoclasts are bone resorbing, multinucleate cells that differentiate from mononuclear macrophage/monocyte-lineage hematopoietic precursor cells. Although previous studies have revealed important molecular signals, how the bone resorptive functions of such cells are controlled in vivo remains less well characterized. Here, we visualized fluorescently labeled mature osteoclasts in intact mouse bone tissues using intravital multiphoton microscopy. Within this mature population, we observed cells with distinct motility behaviors and function, with the relative proportion of static – bone resorptive (R) to moving – nonresorptive (N) varying in accordance with the pathophysiological conditions of the bone. We also found that rapid application of the osteoclast-activation factor RANKL converted many N osteoclasts to R, suggesting a novel point of action in RANKL-mediated control of mature osteoclast function. Furthermore, we showed that Th17 cells, a subset of RANKL-expressing CD4+ T cells, could induce rapid N-to-R conversion of mature osteoclasts via cell-cell contact. These findings provide new insights into the activities of mature osteoclasts in situ and identify actions of RANKL-expressing Th17 cells in inflammatory bone destruction.
Junichi Kikuta, Yoh Wada, Toshiyuki Kowada, Ze Wang, Ge-Hong Sun-Wada, Issei Nishiyama, Shin Mizukami, Nobuhiko Maiya, Hisataka Yasuda, Atsushi Kumanogoh, Kazuya Kikuchi, Ronald N. Germain, Masaru Ishii
The detection of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in osteoblasts and osteoclasts over 20 years ago suggested that direct effects of estrogens on both of these cell types are responsible for their beneficial effects on the skeleton, but the role of ERα in osteoblast lineage cells has remained elusive. In addition, estrogen activation of ERα in osteoclasts can only account for the protective effect of estrogens on the cancellous, but not the cortical, bone compartment that represents 80% of the entire skeleton. Here, we deleted ERα at different stages of differentiation in murine osteoblast lineage cells. We found that ERα in osteoblast progenitors expressing Osterix1 (Osx1) potentiates Wnt/β-catenin signaling, thereby increasing proliferation and differentiation of periosteal cells. Further, this signaling pathway was required for optimal cortical bone accrual at the periosteum in mice. Notably, this function did not require estrogens. The osteoblast progenitor ERα mediated a protective effect of estrogens against endocortical, but not cancellous, bone resorption. ERα in mature osteoblasts or osteocytes did not influence cancellous or cortical bone mass. Hence, the ERα in both osteoblast progenitors and osteoclasts functions to optimize bone mass but at distinct bone compartments and in response to different cues.
Maria Almeida, Srividhya Iyer, Marta Martin-Millan, Shoshana M. Bartell, Li Han, Elena Ambrogini, Melda Onal, Jinhu Xiong, Robert S. Weinstein, Robert L. Jilka, Charles A. O’Brien, Stavros C. Manolagas
Long-term glucocorticoid treatment is associated with numerous adverse outcomes, including weight gain, insulin resistance, and diabetes; however, the pathogenesis of these side effects remains obscure. Glucocorticoids also suppress osteoblast function, including osteocalcin synthesis. Osteocalcin is an osteoblast-specific peptide that is reported to be involved in normal murine fuel metabolism. We now demonstrate that osteoblasts play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of glucocorticoid-induced dysmetabolism. Osteoblast-targeted disruption of glucocorticoid signaling significantly attenuated the suppression of osteocalcin synthesis and prevented the development of insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and abnormal weight gain in corticosterone-treated mice. Nearly identical effects were observed in glucocorticoid-treated animals following heterotopic (hepatic) expression of both carboxylated and uncarboxylated osteocalcin through gene therapy, which additionally led to a reduction in hepatic lipid deposition and improved phosphorylation of the insulin receptor. These data suggest that the effects of exogenous high-dose glucocorticoids on insulin target tissues and systemic energy metabolism are mediated, at least in part, through the skeleton.
Tara C. Brennan-Speranza, Holger Henneicke, Sylvia J. Gasparini, Katharina I. Blankenstein, Uta Heinevetter, Victoria C. Cogger, Dmitri Svistounov, Yaqing Zhang, Gregory J. Cooney, Frank Buttgereit, Colin R. Dunstan, Caren Gundberg, Hong Zhou, Markus J. Seibel
The adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor P2RY12 (purinergic receptor P2Y, G protein coupled, 12) plays a critical role in platelet aggregation, and P2RY12 inhibitors are used clinically to prevent cardiac and cerebral thrombotic events. Extracellular ADP has also been shown to increase osteoclast (OC) activity, but the role of P2RY12 in OC biology is unknown. Here, we examined the role of mouse P2RY12 in OC function. Mice lacking P2ry12 had decreased OC activity and were partially protected from age-associated bone loss. P2ry12–/– OCs exhibited intact differentiation markers, but diminished resorptive function. Extracellular ADP enhanced OC adhesion and resorptive activity of WT, but not P2ry12–/–, OCs. In platelets, ADP stimulation of P2RY12 resulted in GTPase Ras-related protein (RAP1) activation and subsequent αIIbβ3 integrin activation. Likewise, we found that ADP stimulation induced RAP1 activation in WT and integrin β3 gene knockout (Itgb3–/–) OCs, but its effects were substantially blunted in P2ry12–/– OCs. In vivo, P2ry12–/– mice were partially protected from pathologic bone loss associated with serum transfer arthritis, tumor growth in bone, and ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis: all conditions associated with increased extracellular ADP. Finally, mice treated with the clinical inhibitor of P2RY12, clopidogrel, were protected from pathologic osteolysis. These results demonstrate that P2RY12 is the primary ADP receptor in OCs and suggest that P2RY12 inhibition is a potential therapeutic target for pathologic bone loss.
Xinming Su, Desiree H. Floyd, Alun Hughes, Jingyu Xiang, Jochen G. Schneider, Ozge Uluckan, Emanuela Heller, Hongju Deng, Wei Zou, Clarissa S. Craft, Kaiming Wu, Angela C. Hirbe, Dorota Grabowska, Mark C. Eagleton, Sarah Townsley, Lynne Collins, David Piwnica-Worms, Thomas H. Steinberg, Deborah V. Novack, Pamela B. Conley, Michelle A. Hurchla, Michael Rogers, Katherine N. Weilbaecher
The osteoporosis associated with human hyperthyroidism has traditionally been attributed to elevated thyroid hormone levels. There is evidence, however, that thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which is low in most hyperthyroid states, directly affects the skeleton. Importantly, Tshr-knockout mice are osteopenic. In order to determine whether low TSH levels contribute to bone loss in hyperthyroidism, we compared the skeletal phenotypes of wild-type and Tshr-knockout mice that were rendered hyperthyroid. We found that hyperthyroid mice lacking TSHR had greater bone loss and resorption than hyperthyroid wild-type mice, thereby demonstrating that the absence of TSH signaling contributes to bone loss. Further, we identified a TSH-like factor that may confer osteoprotection. These studies suggest that therapeutic suppression of TSH to very low levels may contribute to bone loss in people.
Ramkumarie Baliram, Li Sun, Jay Cao, Jianhua Li, Rauf Latif, Amanda K. Huber, Tony Yuen, Harry C. Blair, Mone Zaidi, Terry F. Davies
Serotonin is a critical regulator of bone mass, fulfilling different functions depending on its site of synthesis. Brain-derived serotonin promotes osteoblast proliferation, whereas duodenal-derived serotonin suppresses it. To understand the molecular mechanisms of duodenal-derived serotonin action on osteoblasts, we explored its transcriptional mediation in mice. We found that the transcription factor FOXO1 is a crucial determinant of the effects of duodenum-derived serotonin on bone formation We identified two key FOXO1 complexes in osteoblasts, one with the transcription factor cAMP-responsive element–binding protein 1 (CREB) and another with activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). Under normal levels of circulating serotonin, the proliferative activity of FOXO1 was promoted by a balance between its interaction with CREB and ATF4. However, high circulating serotonin levels prevented the association of FOXO1 with CREB, resulting in suppressed osteoblast proliferation. These observations identify FOXO1 as the molecular node of an intricate transcriptional machinery that confers the signal of duodenal-derived serotonin to inhibit bone formation.
Aruna Kode, Ioanna Mosialou, Barbara C. Silva, Marie-Therese Rached, Bin Zhou, Ji Wang, Tim M. Townes, Rene Hen, Ronald A. DePinho, X. Edward Guo, Stavroula Kousteni
Osteoporotic bones have reduced spongy bone mass, altered bone architecture, and increased marrow fat. Bone marrow stem cells from osteoporotic patients are more likely to differentiate into adipocytes than control cells, suggesting that adipocyte differentiation may play a role in osteoporosis. VEGF is highly expressed in osteoblastic precursor cells and is known to stimulate bone formation. Here we tested the hypothesis that VEGF is also an important regulator of cell fate, determining whether differentiation gives rise to osteoblasts or adipocytes. Mice with conditional VEGF deficiency in osteoblastic precursor cells exhibited an osteoporosis-like phenotype characterized by reduced bone mass and increased bone marrow fat. In addition, reduced VEGF expression in mesenchymal stem cells resulted in reduced osteoblast and increased adipocyte differentiation. Osteoblast differentiation was reduced when VEGF receptor 1 or 2 was knocked down but was unaffected by treatment with recombinant VEGF or neutralizing antibodies against VEGF. Our results suggested that VEGF controls differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells by regulating the transcription factors RUNX2 and PPARγ2 as well as through a reciprocal interaction with nuclear envelope proteins lamin A/C. Importantly, our data support a model whereby VEGF regulates differentiation through an intracrine mechanism that is distinct from the role of secreted VEGF and its receptors.
Yanqiu Liu, Agnes D. Berendsen, Shidong Jia, Sutada Lotinun, Roland Baron, Napoleone Ferrara, Bjorn R. Olsen
Serum calcium levels are tightly controlled by an integrated hormone-controlled system that involves active vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], which can elicit calcium mobilization from bone when intestinal calcium absorption is decreased. The skeletal adaptations, however, are still poorly characterized. To gain insight into these issues, we analyzed the consequences of specific vitamin D receptor (Vdr) inactivation in the intestine and in mature osteoblasts on calcium and bone homeostasis. We report here that decreased intestinal calcium absorption in intestine-specific Vdr knockout mice resulted in severely reduced skeletal calcium levels so as to ensure normal levels of calcium in the serum. Furthermore, increased 1,25(OH)2D levels not only stimulated bone turnover, leading to osteopenia, but also suppressed bone matrix mineralization. This resulted in extensive hyperosteoidosis, also surrounding the osteocytes, and hypomineralization of the entire bone cortex, which may have contributed to the increase in bone fractures. Mechanistically, osteoblastic VDR signaling suppressed calcium incorporation in bone by directly stimulating the transcription of genes encoding mineralization inhibitors. Ablation of skeletal Vdr signaling precluded this calcium transfer from bone to serum, leading to better preservation of bone mass and mineralization. These findings indicate that in mice, maintaining normocalcemia has priority over skeletal integrity, and that to minimize skeletal calcium storage, 1,25(OH)2D not only increases calcium release from bone, but also inhibits calcium incorporation in bone.
Liesbet Lieben, Ritsuko Masuyama, Sophie Torrekens, Riet Van Looveren, Jan Schrooten, Pieter Baatsen, Marie-Hélène Lafage-Proust, Tom Dresselaers, Jian Q. Feng, Lynda F. Bonewald, Mark B. Meyer, J. Wesley Pike, Roger Bouillon, Geert Carmeliet
Mutations in the coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP) are a major cause of the human skeletal dysplasia Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS); however, the mechanism by which these mutations affect skeletal mineralization and patterning is unknown. Here, we report the identification of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) as a key regulator of CBP activity and demonstrate that its functions map to both osteoprogenitor cells and mature osteoblasts. In osteoblasts, PDK1 activated the CREB/CBP complex, which in turn controlled runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) activation and expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2). These pathways also operated in vivo, as evidenced by recapitulation of RTS spectrum phenotypes with osteoblast-specific Pdk1 deletion in mice (Pdk1osx mice) and by the genetic interactions observed in mice heterozygous for both osteoblast-specific Pdk1 deletion and either Runx2 or Creb deletion. Finally, treatment of Pdk1osx and Cbp+/– embryos with BMPs in utero partially reversed their skeletal anomalies at birth. These findings illustrate the in vivo function of the PDK1-AKT-CREB/CBP pathway in bone formation and provide proof of principle for in utero growth factor supplementation as a potential therapy for skeletal dysplasias.
Jae-Hyuck Shim, Matthew B. Greenblatt, Anju Singh, Nicholas Brady, Dorothy Hu, Rebecca Drapp, Wataru Ogawa, Masato Kasuga, Tetsuo Noda, Sang-Hwa Yang, Sang-Kyou Lee, Vivienne I. Rebel, Laurie H. Glimcher
Mutations in human FYVE, RhoGEF, and PH domain–containing 1 (FGD1) cause faciogenital dysplasia (FGDY; also known as Aarskog syndrome), an X-linked disorder that affects multiple skeletal structures. FGD1 encodes a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that specifically activates the Rho GTPase CDC42. However, the mechanisms by which mutations in FGD1 affect skeletal development are unknown. Here, we describe what we believe to be a novel signaling pathway in osteoblasts initiated by FGD1 that involves the MAP3K mixed-lineage kinase 3 (MLK3). We observed that MLK3 functions downstream of FGD1 to regulate ERK and p38 MAPK, which in turn phosphorylate and activate the master regulator of osteoblast differentiation, Runx2. Mutations in FGD1 found in individuals with FGDY ablated its ability to activate MLK3. Consistent with our description of this pathway and the phenotype of patients with FGD1 mutations, mice with a targeted deletion of Mlk3 displayed multiple skeletal defects, including dental abnormalities, deficient calvarial mineralization, and reduced bone mass. Furthermore, mice with knockin of a mutant Mlk3 allele that is resistant to activation by FGD1/CDC42 displayed similar skeletal defects, demonstrating that activation of MLK3 specifically by FGD1/CDC42 is important for skeletal mineralization. Thus, our results provide a putative biochemical mechanism for the skeletal defects in human FGDY and suggest that modulating MAPK signaling may benefit these patients.
Weiguo Zou, Matthew B. Greenblatt, Jae-Hyuck Shim, Shashi Kant, Bo Zhai, Sutada Lotinun, Nicholas Brady, Dorothy Zhang Hu, Steven P. Gygi, Roland Baron, Roger J. Davis, Dallas Jones, Laurie H. Glimcher
Osteoclasts are terminally differentiated leukocytes that erode the mineralized bone matrix. Osteoclastogenesis requires costimulatory receptor signaling through adaptors containing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs), such as Fc receptor common γ (FcRγ) and DNAX-activating protein of 12 kDa. Identification of these ITAM-containing receptors and their ligands remains a high research priority, since the stimuli for osteoclastogenesis are only partly defined. Osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) was proposed to be a potent FcRγ-associated costimulatory receptor expressed by preosteoclasts in vitro, but OSCAR lacks a cognate ligand and its role in vivo has been unclear. Using samples from mice and patients deficient in various ITAM signaling pathways, we show here that OSCAR costimulates one of the major FcRγ-associated pathways required for osteoclastogenesis in vivo. Furthermore, we found that OSCAR binds to specific motifs within fibrillar collagens in the ECM that become revealed on nonquiescent bone surfaces in which osteoclasts undergo maturation and terminal differentiation in vivo. OSCAR promoted osteoclastogenesis in vivo, and OSCAR binding to its collagen motif led to signaling that increased numbers of osteoclasts in culture. Thus, our results suggest that ITAM-containing receptors can respond to exposed ligands in collagen, leading to the functional differentiation of leukocytes, which provides what we believe to be a new concept for ITAM regulation of cytokine receptors in different tissue microenvironments.
Alexander David Barrow, Nicolas Raynal, Thomas Levin Andersen, David A. Slatter, Dominique Bihan, Nicholas Pugh, Marina Cella, Taesoo Kim, Jaerang Rho, Takako Negishi-Koga, Jean-Marie Delaisse, Hiroshi Takayanagi, Joseph Lorenzo, Marco Colonna, Richard W. Farndale, Yongwon Choi, John Trowsdale
The heterotrimeric G protein subunit Gsα stimulates cAMP-dependent signaling downstream of G protein–coupled receptors. In this study, we set out to determine the role of Gsα signaling in cells of the early osteoblast lineage in vivo by conditionally deleting Gsα from osterix-expressing cells. This led to severe osteoporosis with fractures at birth, a phenotype that was found to be the consequence of impaired bone formation rather than increased resorption. Osteoblast number was markedly decreased and osteogenic differentiation was accelerated, resulting in the formation of woven bone. Rapid differentiation of mature osteoblasts into matrix-embedded osteocytes likely contributed to depletion of the osteoblast pool. In addition, the number of committed osteoblast progenitors was diminished in both bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and calvarial cells of mutant mice. In the absence of Gsα, expression of sclerostin and dickkopf1 (Dkk1), inhibitors of canonical Wnt signaling, was markedly increased; this was accompanied by reduced Wnt signaling in the osteoblast lineage. In summary, we have shown that Gsα regulates bone formation by at least two distinct mechanisms: facilitating the commitment of mesenchymal progenitors to the osteoblast lineage in association with enhanced Wnt signaling; and restraining the differentiation of committed osteoblasts to enable production of bone of optimal mass, quality, and strength.
Joy Y. Wu, Piia Aarnisalo, Murat Bastepe, Partha Sinha, Keertik Fulzele, Martin K. Selig, Min Chen, Ingrid J. Poulton, Louise E. Purton, Natalie A. Sims, Lee S. Weinstein, Henry M. Kronenberg