Homozygous loss-of-function mutations in AIRE cause autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS 1), which manifests in a classic triad of hypoparathyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, and candidiasis. Interestingly, a kindred with a specific G228W AIRE variant presented with an autosomal dominant autoimmune phenotype distinct from APS 1. We utilized a novel G228W-knockin mouse model to show that this variant acted in a dominant-negative manner to cause a unique autoimmunity syndrome. In addition, the expression of a large number of Aire-regulated thymic antigens was partially inhibited in these animals, demonstrating the importance of quantitative changes in thymic antigen expression in determining organ-specific autoimmunity. Furthermore, the dominant-negative effect of the G228W variant was exerted through recruitment of WT Aire away from active sites of transcription in the nucleus of medullary thymic epithelial cells in vivo. Together, these results may demonstrate a mechanism by which autoimmune predisposition to phenotypes distinct from APS 1 can be mediated in a dominant-negative fashion by Aire.
Maureen A. Su, Karen Giang, Kristina Žumer, Huimin Jiang, Irena Oven, John L. Rinn, Jason J. DeVoss, Kellsey P.A. Johannes, Wen Lu, James Gardner, Angela Chang, Paula Bubulya, Howard Y. Chang, B. Matija Peterlin, Mark S. Anderson
IFN-β, a type I IFN, is widely used for the treatment of MS. However, the mechanisms behind its therapeutic efficacy are not well understood. Using a murine model of MS, EAE, we demonstrate that the Th17-mediated development of autoimmune disease is constrained by Toll–IL-1 receptor domain–containing adaptor inducing IFN-β–dependent (TRIF-dependent) type I IFN production and its downstream signaling pathway. Mice with defects in TRIF or type I IFN receptor (IFNAR) developed more severe EAE. Notably, these mice exhibited marked CNS inflammation, as manifested by increased IL-17 production. In addition, IFNAR-dependent signaling events were essential for negatively regulating Th17 development. Finally, IFN-β–mediated IL-27 production by innate immune cells was critical for the immunoregulatory role of IFN-β in the CNS autoimmune disease. Together, our findings not only may provide a molecular mechanism for the clinical benefits of IFN-β in MS but also demonstrate a regulatory role for type I IFN induction and its downstream signaling pathways in limiting Th17 development and autoimmune inflammation.
Beichu Guo, Elmer Y. Chang, Genhong Cheng
A hallmark of SLE is the production of high-titer, high-affinity, isotype-switched IgG autoantibodies directed against nucleic acid–associated antigens. Several studies have established a role for both type I IFN (IFN-I) and the activation of TLRs by nucleic acid–associated autoantigens in the pathogenesis of this disease. Here, we demonstrate that 2 IFN-I signaling molecules, IFN regulatory factor 9 (IRF9) and STAT1, were required for the production of IgG autoantibodies in the pristane-induced mouse model of SLE. In addition, levels of IgM autoantibodies were increased in pristane-treated Irf9–/– mice, suggesting that IRF9 plays a role in isotype switching in response to self antigens. Upregulation of TLR7 by IFN-α was greatly reduced in Irf9–/– and Stat1–/– B cells. Irf9–/– B cells were incapable of being activated through TLR7, and Stat1–/– B cells were impaired in activation through both TLR7 and TLR9. These data may reveal a novel role for IFN-I signaling molecules in both TLR-specific B cell responses and production of IgG autoantibodies directed against nucleic acid–associated autoantigens. Our results suggest that IFN-I is upstream of TLR signaling in the activation of autoreactive B cells in SLE.
Donna L. Thibault, Alvina D. Chu, Kareem L. Graham, Imelda Balboni, Lowen Y. Lee, Cassidy Kohlmoos, Angela Landrigan, John P. Higgins, Robert Tibshirani, Paul J. Utz
The precise roles of B cells in promoting the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes remain undefined. Here, we demonstrate that B cell depletion in mice can prevent or delay diabetes, reverse diabetes after frank hyperglycemia, and lead to the development of cells that suppress disease. To determine the efficacy and potential mechanism of therapeutic B cell depletion, we generated a transgenic NOD mouse expressing human CD20 (hCD20) on B cells. A single cycle of treatment with an antibody specific for hCD20 temporarily depleted B cells and significantly delayed and/or reduced the onset of diabetes. Furthermore, disease established to the point of clinical hyperglycemia could be reversed in over one-third of diabetic mice. Why B cell depletion is therapeutic for a variety of autoimmune diseases is unclear, although effects on antibodies, cytokines, and antigen presentation to T cells are thought to be important. In B cell–depleted NOD mice, we identified what we believe is a novel mechanism by which B cell depletion may lead to long-term remission through expansion of Tregs and regulatory B cells. Our results demonstrate clinical efficacy even in established disease and identify mechanisms for therapeutic action that will guide design and evaluation of parallel studies in patients.
Chang-yun Hu, Daniel Rodriguez-Pinto, Wei Du, Anupama Ahuja, Octavian Henegariu, F. Susan Wong, Mark J. Shlomchik, Li Wen
TLRs may contribute to the progression of rheumatoid arthritis through recognition of microbial or host-derived ligands found in arthritic joints. Here, we show that TLR2 and TLR4, but not TLR9, are involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis and play distinct roles in the regulation of T cells and cytokines. We investigated the involvement of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 in the progression of arthritis using IL-1 receptor antagonist–knockout (IL1rn–/–) mice, which spontaneously develop an autoimmune T cell–mediated arthritis. Spontaneous onset of arthritis was dependent on TLR activation by microbial flora, as germ-free mice did not develop arthritis. Clinical and histopathological evaluation of IL1rn–/–Tlr2–/– mice revealed more severe arthritis, characterized by reduced suppressive function of Tregs and substantially increased IFN-γ production by T cells. IL1rn–/–Tlr4–/– mice were, in contrast, protected against severe arthritis and had markedly lower numbers of Th17 cells and a reduced capacity to produce IL-17. A lack of Tlr9 did not affect the progression of arthritis. While any therapeutic intervention targeting TLR2 still seems complicated, the strict position of TLR4 upstream of a number of pathogenic cytokines including IL-17 provides an interesting potential therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis.
Shahla Abdollahi-Roodsaz, Leo A.B. Joosten, Marije I. Koenders, Isabel Devesa, Mieke F. Roelofs, Timothy R.D.J. Radstake, Marleen Heuvelmans-Jacobs, Shizuo Akira, Martin J.H. Nicklin, Fátima Ribeiro-Dias, Wim B. van den Berg
Autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a mouse model for multiple sclerosis, is characterized by the activation of immune cells, demyelination of axons in the CNS, and paralysis. We found that TGF-β1 synthesis in glial cells and TGF-β–induced signaling in the CNS were activated several days before the onset of paralysis in mice with autoimmune encephalomyelitis. While early production of TGF-β1 was observed in glial cells TGF-β signaling was activated in neurons and later in infiltrating T cells in inflammatory lesions. Systemic treatment with a pharmacological inhibitor of TGF-β signaling ameliorated the paralytic disease and reduced the accumulation of pathogenic T cells and expression of IL-6 in the CNS. Priming of peripheral T cells was not altered, nor was the generation of TH17 cells, indicating that this effect was directed within the brain, yet affected the immune system. These results suggest that early production of TGF-β1 in the CNS creates a permissive and dangerous environment for the initiation of autoimmune inflammation, providing a rare example of the brain modulating the immune system. Importantly, inhibition of TGF-β signaling may have benefits in the treatment of the acute phase of autoimmune CNS inflammation.
Jian Luo, Peggy P. Ho, Marion S. Buckwalter, Tiffany Hsu, Lowen Y. Lee, Hui Zhang, Dae-Kee Kim, Seong-Jin Kim, Sanjiv S. Gambhir, Lawrence Steinman, Tony Wyss-Coray
Histamine receptor H1 (H1R) is a susceptibility gene in both experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO), 2 classical T cell–mediated models of organ-specific autoimmune disease. Here we showed that expression of H1R in naive CD4+ T cells was required for maximal IFN-γ production but was dispensable for proliferation. Moreover, H1R signaling at the time of TCR ligation was required for activation of p38 MAPK, a known regulator of IFN-γ expression. Importantly, selective reexpression of H1R in CD4+ T cells fully complemented both the IFN-γ production and the EAE susceptibility of H1R-deficient mice. These data suggest that the presence of H1R in CD4+ T cells and its interaction with histamine regulates early TCR signals that lead to Th1 differentiation and autoimmune disease.
Rajkumar Noubade, Graeme Milligan, James F. Zachary, Elizabeth P. Blankenhorn, Roxana del Rio, Mercedes Rincon, Cory Teuscher
Reduced capacity to produce ROS increases the severity of T cell–dependent arthritis in both mice and rats with polymorphisms in neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 (Ncf1) (p47phox). Since T cells cannot exert oxidative burst, we hypothesized that T cell responsiveness is downregulated by ROS produced by APCs. Macrophages have the highest burst capacity among APCs, so to study the effect of macrophage ROS on T cell activation, we developed transgenic mice expressing functional Ncf1 restricted to macrophages. Macrophage-restricted expression of functional Ncf1 restored arthritis resistance to the level of that of wild-type mice in a collagen-induced arthritis model but not in a T cell–independent anti-collagen antibody–induced arthritis model. T cell activation was downregulated and skewed toward Th2 in transgenic mice. In vitro, IL-2 production and T cell proliferation were suppressed by macrophage ROS, irrespective of T cell origin. IFN-γ production, however, was independent of macrophage ROS but dependent on T cell origin. These effects were antigen dependent but not restricted to collagen type II. In conclusion, macrophage-derived ROS play a role in T cell selection, maturation, and differentiation, and also a suppressive role in T cell activation, and thereby mediate protection against autoimmune diseases like arthritis.
Kyra A. Gelderman, Malin Hultqvist, Angela Pizzolla, Ming Zhao, Kutty Selva Nandakumar, Ragnar Mattsson, Rikard Holmdahl
Determination of the origin and fate of autoreactive B cells is critical to understanding and treating autoimmune diseases. We report that, despite being derived from healthy people, antibodies from B cells that have class switched to IgD via genetic recombination (and thus become class switched to Cδ [Cδ-CS] cells) are highly reactive to self antigens. Over half of the antibodies from Cδ-CS B cells bind autoantigens on human epithelioma cell line 2 (HEp-2) cells or antinuclear antigens, and a quarter bind double-stranded DNA; both groups of antibodies are frequently polyreactive. Intriguingly, some Cδ-CS B cells have accumulated basic residues in the antibody variable regions that mediate anti-DNA reactivity via somatic hypermutation and selection, while other Cδ-CS B cells are naturally autoreactive. Though the total percentage was appreciably less than for Cδ-CS cells, a surprising 31% of IgG memory cell antibodies were somewhat autoreactive, and as expected, about 24% of naive cell antibodies were autoreactive. We interpret these findings to indicate either that autoreactive B cells can be induced to class switch to IgD or that autoreactive B cells that use IgD as the B cell receptor are not effectively deleted. Determination of the mechanism by which the majority of Cδ-CS B cells are autoreactive may be important in understanding peripheral tolerance mechanisms and may provide insight into the enigmatic function of the IgD antibody.
Kristi Koelsch, Nai-Ying Zheng, Qingzhao Zhang, Andrew Duty, Christina Helms, Melissa D. Mathias, Mathew Jared, Kenneth Smith, J. Donald Capra, Patrick C. Wilson
We have developed a model of autoimmunity to investigate autoantibody-mediated cross-presentation of self antigen. RIP-mOVA mice, expressing OVA in pancreatic β cells, develop severe autoimmune diabetes when given OT-I cells (OVA-specific CD8+ T cells) and anti-OVA IgG but not when given T cells alone. Anti-OVA IgG is not directly injurious to the islets but rather enhances cross-presentation of apoptotic islet antigen to the OT-I cells, leading to their differentiation into potent effector cells. Antibody-driven effector T cell activation is dependent on the presence of activating Fc receptors for IgG (FcγRs) and cross-priming DCs. As a consequence, diabetes incidence and severity was reduced in mice lacking activating FcγRs. An intact complement pathway was also required for disease development, as C3 deficiency was also partially protective. C3-deficient animals exhibited augmented T cell priming overall, indicating a proinflammatory role for complement activation after the T cell priming phase. Thus, we show that autoreactive antibody can potently enhance the activation of effector T cells in response to cross-presented self antigen, thereby contributing to T cell–mediated autoimmunity.
Stephanie O. Harbers, Andrea Crocker, Geoffrey Catalano, Vivette D’Agati, Steffen Jung, Dharmesh D. Desai, Raphael Clynes
No posts were found with this tag.